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Terrestrial Vertebrates

Terrestrial (land-dwelling) Invasive Vertebrates are non-native members of the subphylum Vertebrata (animals with a backbone) who spend the majority of their lives on land. While terrestrial vertebrates form a minor proportion of all invasive species, their impacts are often disproportionately high. Terrestrial invasive vertebrates primarily include reptiles, birds, and mammals.


  • Allaby, Michael. 2014. "Vertebrata." In: A Dictionary of Zoology (4th ed). Oxford University Press.
  • Parkes, J.P and G. Nugent. 2009. "Management of terrestrial vertebrate pests." In: Invasive Species Management: A Handbook of Principles and Techniques. Clout, M.N. and P.A. Williams, eds. Oxford University Press.   
  • Witmer, G.W., P.W. Burke, W.C. Pitt, and M.L. Avery. 2007. Management of invasive vertebrates in the United States: an overview. Managing Vertebrate Invasive Species: Proceedings of an International Symposium 56.

Note: Our species profiles provide general information about species considered to be invasive. This is not a list of all invasive species, nor does our information have regulatory implications. The large numbers of invasive species prevent us from maintaining detailed information on ALL invasive species. In addition, determining the invasiveness of a species depends on a number of local factors, including type of habitat. Our species profiles are provided as an educational informational tool.