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Terrestrial Vertebrates

Terrestrial (land-dwelling) Invasive Vertebrates are non-native members of the subphylum Vertebrata (animals with a backbone) who spend the majority of their lives on land. While terrestrial vertebrates form a minor proportion of all invasive species, their impacts are often disproportionately high. Terrestrial invasive vertebrates primarily include reptiles, birds, and mammals.


  • Allaby, Michael. 2014. "Vertebrata." In: A Dictionary of Zoology (4th ed). Oxford University Press.
  • Parkes, J.P and G. Nugent. 2009. "Management of terrestrial vertebrate pests." In: Invasive Species Management: A Handbook of Principles and Techniques. Clout, M.N. and P.A. Williams, eds. Oxford University Press.   
  • Witmer, G.W., P.W. Burke, W.C. Pitt, and M.L. Avery. 2007. Management of invasive vertebrates in the United States: an overview. Managing Vertebrate Invasive Species: Proceedings of an International Symposium 56.