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Wild Boar

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Wild boar - invasive.org
Wild Boar, Management - Billy Higginbotham Texas AgriLife Extension Service
Scientific Name: 
Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 (ITIS)
Common Name: 
Wild boar, wild hog, feral pig, feral hog, Old World swine, razorback, Eurasian wild boar, Russian wild boar
Native To: 
Date of U.S. Introduction: 
Means of Introduction: 
Imported as a food source and escaped from domestication or were intentionally released (Rouhe and Sytsma 2007)
Impact: 
Damages native plants and crops and competes with native species (Rouhe and Sytsma 2007)

Spotlights

USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

The U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) have developed a protocol to help ensure bilateral trade will continue if African swine fever (ASF) is detected in feral swine in either country, while still absent from domestic swine. The intent of the protocol is to protect swine populations in both countries during an outbreak of ASF in feral swine, while minimizing impacts on the trade of live swine, swine products, and other swine commodities.

United States Department of Agriculture.

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is investing $11.65 million in 14 projects to help agricultural producers and private landowners trap and control feral swine as part of the Feral Swine Eradication and Control Pilot Program. This investment expands the pilot program to new projects in Alabama, Hawaii, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina and Texas. This pilot program is a joint effort between USDA's Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS).

This second round of funding is for partners to carry out activities as part of the identified pilot projects in select states. "These awards enable landowners to address the threat that feral swine pose to natural resources and agriculture," NRCS Acting Chief Kevin Norton said. "The projects we have identified will be key to addressing the feral swine problem."

USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

Feral swine can carry foreign animal diseases like African Swine Fever. While ASF has never been found in domestic or feral swine in the United States, there is no treatment or vaccine for it. That’s why surveillance is very important. Help protect U.S. pigs by immediately reporting sick or dead feral swine.

WHAT TO DO: If you find a sick or dead feral swine with no obvious injury or cause of death, report it right away. Call the USDA-APHIS Wildlife Services program in your State at 1-866-4-USDA-WS. Don’t wait! Quick detection is essential to preventing the spread of ASF.

Colorado Parks and Wildlife.

All known feral swine have been eliminated from Colorado thanks to a near 15-year state and federal partnership comprised of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) Wildlife Services (WS), the USDA Forest Service (FS), Colorado Parks and Wildlife (CPW) and the Colorado Department of Agriculture (CDA). The partnership formed in the early 2000s as a task force to manage invasive feral swine, which root up crops and pastures causing billions in damage nationwide each year. Feral swine also spread disease to livestock, wildlife and humans. Ground-nesting birds and other wildlife are easy prey for feral swine. And the swine put native wildlife at risk by competing for resources and destroying habitats and ecosystems. 

You can help keep Colorado free of feral swine:

  • Spread the word that in Colorado it’s illegal to possess, transport or release feral swine, wild swine species or hybrids.
  • Report sightings of feral swine or transportation activities to USDA Wildlife Services at 1-866-4-USDA-WS (1-866-487-3297) or Colorado Parks and Wildlife at 303-297-1192.
  • Get more information at the National Feral Swine Damage Management Program.

Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation. Montana Invasive Species Council.

The Montana and Washington invasive species councils have joined forces to stop wild pigs from crossing borders. The two councils issued a report with recommendations and best management practices aimed at helping federal, state, provincial and local landowners manage wild pigs in the western United States and Canada. "Wild pig populations are expanding in the western provinces of Canada and in the United States." said Stephanie Criswell, coordinator of the Montana Invasive Species Council. "We are at a unique point in time where we can work together to prevent Canadian wild pigs from spreading across borders into unaffected states like Montana."

In early 2020, the two invasive species councils convened a working group of more than 40 federal, state and Canadian feral swine experts to discuss challenges and opportunities to prevent feral swine along interstate and international borders. Finalized this month, the report includes 22 recommendations that address five strategic areas of feral swine management. Recommendations include standardizing communications to the public, expanding monitoring networks by partnering with non-traditional organizations such as hunting groups, and formalizing notification protocols for reports that will be shared between state and provincial authorities along the international border. The complete report can be found at misc.mt.gov.

United States Department of Agriculture.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) announced today it is offering $75 million in funding for the eradication and control of feral swine through the Feral Swine Eradication and Control Pilot Program (FSCP) in a joint effort between USDA’s Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS). The 2018 Farm Bill included this new pilot program to help address the threat that feral swine pose to agriculture, ecosystems and human and animal health. Additional information on the complete funding announcement and about specific pilot projects, including target areas and the roles for which partner assistance is being requested, can be found on the FSCP webpage.

United States Department of Agriculture. USDA Climate Hubs.

Feral swine have recently invaded parts of the Northwest. They have been invading southwestern and central Oregon since 2004 and were first detected in Washington in 2016. Idaho has not seen significant numbers of feral swine, however migrating pigs may pose a threat. The population growth potential of feral swine is closely associated with food availability, which is becoming more abundant year-round due to warmer winter conditions that are linked to climate change. Projected increases in extreme events and average summer temperatures in the region are not expected to negatively impact the success of feral pigs. In response, timely population control measures are necessary to avoid damage to crops, forests, and rangelands.

Distribution / Maps / Survey Status

USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

Contains historical maps of feral swine populations by county.

Images

University of Georgia. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health.

Videos

eXtension.

Google. YouTube; Noble Research Institute.

Google. YouTube; USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

APHIS is offering this video series, which chronicles the impact feral swine have on Americans' livelihoods through damage to agricultural and natural resources, to increase public awareness.
See also: Press Release: New USDA Video Series Highlights Personal Stories about Invasive Feral Swine Damage (Apr 5, 2021)

Google. YouTube; United States Department of Agriculture.
The video tells the story of how feral swine have become one of the most expensive invasive species in the U.S. The feral swine issue is being handled with Federal, State, and Local Wildlife officials to help farmers, ranchers, and the general public from these destructive animals. The video educates the viewer about the problems they can cause and how your Wildlife officials are mitigating, and trying to eliminate the damage through innovative scientific research.
Google. YouTube; Mississippi State University. Department of Wildlife, Fisheries & Aquaculture - Extension.
Contains multiple videos for feral swine.

Selected Resources

The section below contains highly relevant resources for this species, organized by source. Or, to display all related content view all resources for Wild Boar.

Council or Task Force

Alberta Invasive Species Council (Canada).

See also: Fact Sheets for more information about individual invasive species, including those listed as "Prohibited Noxious" and "Noxious" under the Alberta Weed Control Act

Invasive Species Council of British Columbia (Canada).

See also: Publications for more resources

Washington State Recreation and Conservation Office. Washington Invasive Species Council.

Partnership
IUCN. Species Survival Commission. Invasive Species Specialist Group.

New York Invasive Species Clearinghouse.

Federal Government

USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce.

International Government
Australian Government. Department of the Environment and Energy.

Centre for Invasive Species Solutions (Australia).

Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry (Canada).

State and Local Government
Texas Parks and Wildlife.

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

Ohio Department of Natural Resources.

Missouri Department of Conservation.

Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife.

North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission.

New York State Department of Environmental Conservation.

Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources.

Indiana Department of Natural Resources.

Academic
University of Michigan. Museum of Zoology.

University of Arkansas. Cooperative Extension Service.

Texas A&M AgriLife Extension.

eXtension.

Note: Multistate collaboration with a variety of feral hog resources

University of Missouri. Extension.

Ohio State University. Extension.
Mississippi State University. Center for Resolving Human-Wildlife Conflicts.
Professional

Noble Research Institute.

Publication NF-WF-10-01, 2nd Edition

Citations