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Virulent Newcastle Disease

Scientific Name

Avian paramyxovirus 1 (APMV-1) (Amarasinghe et al. 2019)

Common Name

Virulent Newcastle disease (vND), Exotic Newcastle disease (END), Velogenic Newcastle disease, Asiatic Newcastle disease

Native To

First reported in Indonesia and the United Kingdom in 1926 (Brown and Bevins 2017)

Date of U.S. Introduction

First outbreak in the U.S. occurred in 1971. The disease was eradicated, but additional outbreaks have occurred in 2002-2003 and 2018. (California Department of Food and Agriculture)

Means of Introduction

Possibly through illegally imported birds; may also be introduced to domestic flocks from wild birds (Brown and Bevins 2017)


Extremely contagious and highly lethal disease of poultry; exposure can lead to mild symptoms in humans (Brown and Bevins 2017)

Virulent Newcaster Disease
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Virulent newcastle disease symptoms, open mouth breathing with moderate swelling of the comb and wattles


Photo by USDA, Animal and Health Inspection Service

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  • USDA Announces Transition to Preventive Plan for Virulent Newcastle Disease in California

    • Jun 1, 2020
    • USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

    • The United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is announcing that effective today, we are transitioning our virulent Newcastle disease (vND) efforts in southern California from a response focus to implementing a prevention plan aimed at keeping vND from recurring in the region. Even with extensive testing taking place, APHIS has not confirmed any new vND cases since February 1, 2020. As a result, the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) is removing its vND quarantine.

Federally Regulated


Selected Resources

The section below contains highly relevant resources for this species, organized by source.

Federal Government
International Government
State and Local Government