Humans adores trees. But humans also migrate and trade, habits that led to the accidental introduction of insects and diseases that harm trees and alter the landscape. Examples are easy to find and may be outside your front door: American elms that once dotted streets across America succumbed to Dutch elm disease. Now all colors of ash species – black, green, white, pumpkin, and blue – are threatened by emerald ash borer. The already uncommon butternut tree, also known as white walnut, faces the possibility of extinction from a mysterious attacker. Many invasive insects and fungi come from regions where native trees have evolved to resist their attacks. When these species enter the United States, they find trees that lack this resistance. There's no immediate end to this dismal pipeline, but there is hope on the horizon.
Distribution / Maps / Survey Status
USDA. FS. Northern Research Station.
Select the non-indigenous forest pest to view maps depicting state and county distribution. Produced by: USDA, FS, Forest Health Protection, and its partners.
The section below contains highly relevant resources for this species, organized by source. Or, to display all related content view all resources for Dutch Elm Disease.
Council or Task Force
Ontario's Invading Species Awareness Program (Canada).
State and Local Government
Utah State University Extension; Utah Plant Pest Diagnostic Laboratory.
Michigan State University. Integrated Pest Management Program.
See also: IPM Scouting in Woody Landscape Plants for more pests and diseases
Oklahoma State University. Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service.
Missouri Botanical Garden.
Morton Arboretum (Illinois).
- Brasier, C. M., and K. W. Buck. 2001. Rapid evolutionary changes in a globally invading fungal pathogen. Biological Invasions 3:223-233.
- Flores, A. 2006. Dutch elm disease update.Agricultural Research 54(6):18.
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Ophiostoma spp. [Accessed Sep 10, 2014].
- Olson, B., S. von Broembsen, and T. Royer. Dutch Elm Disease and Its Control (PDF | 1.24 MB). Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service. EPP-7602.