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Citrus Canker

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Citrus canker -
Citrus canker, fruit symptoms on sweet orange - Photo by Jeffrey W. Lotz; Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services
Scientific Name: 

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri

Common Name: 
Citrus canker, Citrus bacterial canker
Native To: 

Believed to have originated in Southeast Asia or India (Polek 2007)

Date of U.S. Introduction: 

First discovered in 1910, but eradicated in 1931; another outbreak was discovered in 1986, and again in 1995 (Dewdney 2013)

Means of Introduction: 

First arrived in seedlings imported from Japan in 1910 (Dewdney 2013)


Bacterial disease that infects citrus trees, where it destroys fruit and causes decreased production (CABI)

Distribution / Maps / Survey Status

USDA. APHIS. Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey. National Agricultural Pest Information System.


Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.

Federally Regulated

USDA. APHIS. Plant Protection and Quarantine.

Contains the legal description of current federal quarantine areas for several citrus pests and diseases. Users can search by state and pest to determine the quarantine area(s) by state. An interactive map of quarantine areas is also available.

USDA. APHIS. Plant Protection and Quarantine.

Contains the requirements for moving fruit, nursery stock, or other regulated articles for several citrus pests and diseases.

U.S. Government Printing Office. Electronic Code of Federal Regulations.


Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Plant Industry.

University of Georgia. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health.
Australian Plant Biosecurity Cooperative Research Centre. Pests and Diseases Image Library.


Google. YouTube; Texas A&M University.
Texas AgriLife Extension Service.

Selected Resources

The section below contains highly relevant resources for this species, organized by source. Or, to display all related content view all resources for Citrus Canker.


USDA. APHIS. PPQ. CPHST. Identification Technology Program.

See also: Citrus Resource

European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.
IUCN. Species Survival Commission. Invasive Species Specialist Group.
Texas Citrus Pest and Disease Management Corporation.
Federal Government
Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce.

USDA. APHIS. Plant Protection and Quarantine.

International Government

New South Wales Department of Primary Industries (Australia).

Business Queensland (Australia).

State and Local Government

Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Plant Industry.


University of California. Agriculture and Natural Resources.

ANR Publication 8218

University of California - Riverside. Center for Invasive Species Research.

Louisiana State University. AgCenter Research and Extension.
Publication 3269
See also: Plant Diagnostic Center - Publications for more resources
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Extension.
Electronic Data Information Source - publication resources
University of Florida. IFAS. Citrus Research and Education Center.
American Phytopathological Society.