Neonectria spp. (Cale et al. 2015)
Beech bark disease (BBD)
Unknown; the fungal pathogens may possibly be native, but the insect vector, Cryptococcus fagisuga, was introduced from Europe (Kasson and Livingston 2009; Gwiazdowski et al. 2006)
First appeared in Canada during the 1890s, and in the U.S. during the 1930s (Gwiazdowski et al. 2006; Houston 1994)
The insect vector (C. fagisuga) was introduced accidentally on imported European beech saplings (Gwiazdowski et al. 2006)
Fungal disease that kills American beech trees after being attacked by the beech scale insect (C. fagisuga) (McCullough et al. 2005)
Northeastern U.S. and Great Lakes Region
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Distribution / Maps / Survey Status
The section below contains highly relevant resources for this species, organized by source.
State and Local Government
Cale, J.A., S.A. Teale, M.T. Johnston, G.L. Boyer, K.A. Perri, and J.D. Castello. 2015. New ecological and physiological dimensions of beech bark disease development in aftermath forests. Forest Ecology and Management 336:99-108.
Gwiazdowski, R.A., R.G. Van Driesche, A. Desnoyers, S. Lyon, S. Wu, N. Kamata, and B.B. Normark. 2006. Possible geographic origin of beech scale, Cryptococcus fagisuga (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae), an invasive pest in North America. Biological Control 39(1):9-18.
Houston, D.R. 1994. Major new tree disease epidemics: beech bark disease. Annual Review of Phytopathology 32:75-87.
Kasson, M.T., and W.H. Livingston. 2009. Spatial distribution of Neonectria species associated with beech bark disease in northern Maine. Mycologia 101(2):190-195.
McCullough, D.G., R.L. Heyd, and J.G. O'Brien. 2005. Biology and Management of Beech Bark Disease [PDF, 2.77 MB]. Michigan State University. Extension Bulletin E-2746.