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African Swine Fever

Scientific Name

African swine fever virus (Alonso et al. 2018)

Common Name

African swine fever, African swine fever virus (ASF, ASFV)

Native To

First identified in Kenya in 1921 (Sánchez‐Vizcaíno et al. 2012)

Date of U.S. Introduction

Pathogen has not been detected in the U.S. (Brown and Bevin 2018)

Means of Introduction

Most likely pathway into the U.S. is the illegal importation of swine products or byproducts (APHIS)

Impact

Highly contagious and fatal viral disease affecting domestic and wild pigs; one of the most economically devastating diseases of swine (APHIS; Sánchez‐Vizcaíno et al. 2012)

African swine fever research

Microbiologist Zhiqiang Lu uses a DNA sequencer to examine genetically engineered African swine fever viruses

Credit

Photo by Keith Weller; USDA, Agricultural Research Service

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Spotlights

  • USDA Continuing African Swine Fever Prevention Efforts – Preparing to Establish Foreign Animal Disease Protection Zone

    • Aug 26, 2021
    • USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

    • As part of its continuing efforts to respond to the detection of African Swine Fever (ASF) in the Dominican Republic (DR) and prevent its introduction into the Conterminous United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is preparing to establish a Foreign Animal Disease protection zone in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. ASF has not been detected in Puerto Rico or the U.S. Virgin Islands, and USDA is committed to keeping it out of both islands and the rest of the United States. Out of an abundance of caution, APHIS is taking this additional action to further safeguard the U.S. swine herd and protect the interests and livelihoods of U.S. pork producers.

  • Agriculture Secretary Applauds Research Efforts in Blocking Spread of African Swine Fever Virus

    • Sep 30, 2021
    • United States Department of Agriculture.

    • Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack today applauded research and protection efforts underway at the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Agricultural Research Service (ARS) and Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) to prevent the spread of African Swine Fever virus, which has been causing devastating losses to the swine industry across the globe. "USDA agencies are working together to protect U.S. livestock from foreign and emerging animal diseases that could harm our economy and public health," said Secretary Vilsack. "I am proud of the extraordinary research underway at the Agricultural Research Service to develop vaccine candidates to prevent African Swine Fever virus. In addition, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service has done tremendous work to establish protection zones to safeguard the entire U.S. swine industry."

      African Swine Fever (ASF) was originally detected in 2007 in the Republic of Georgia and is known to cause virulent, deadly disease outbreaks in wild and domesticated swine. Since the original outbreak, ASF has had a widespread and lethal impact on swine herds in various countries in Eastern and Central Europe and throughout Asia. Although the virus is causing profound economic losses to the swine industry, there have not been any U.S. outbreaks.

  • Expanding on the Legacy of the Plum Island Animal Disease Center

    • Aug 2, 2021
    • USDA. ARS. Tellus.

    • Next-generation laboratory gives USDA scientists the ability to expand research established at Plum Island. Scientists have been helping other countries in a united front against foreign animal diseases. These efforts also help the U.S. prepare for and prevent a potential introduction of a high-consequence livestock disease. African swine fever virus, or ASFV, is among the most concerning animal disease pathogens currently circulating the globe. While the pathogen doesn’t affect humans and has not been seen in U.S. swine, it is economically affecting the pork industry.

  • USDA Statement on Confirmation of African Swine Fever in the Dominican Republic

    • Jul 28, 2021
    • USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

    • The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory has confirmed African swine fever (ASF) in samples collected from pigs in the Dominican Republic through an existing cooperative surveillance program. USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has numerous interlocking safeguards in place to prevent ASF from entering the United States.  Pork and pork products from the Dominican Republic are currently prohibited entry as a result of existing classical swine fever restrictions.

      The USDA continues to work diligently with partners including the Department of Homeland Security’s Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and the U.S. swine industry to prevent ASF from entering the United States. ASF is not a threat to human health, cannot be transmitted from pigs to humans and it is not a food safety issue. 

  • African Swine Fever - Report Feral Swine [PDF | 365 KB]

    • May 2020
    • USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

    • Feral swine can carry foreign animal diseases like African Swine Fever. While ASF has never been found in domestic or feral swine in the United States, there is no treatment or vaccine for it. That’s why surveillance is very important. Help protect U.S. pigs by immediately reporting sick or dead feral swine.

      WHAT TO DO: If you find a sick or dead feral swine with no obvious injury or cause of death, report it right away. Call the USDA-APHIS Wildlife Services program in your State at 1-866-4-USDA-WS. Don’t wait! Quick detection is essential to preventing the spread of ASF.

  • USDA Continues to Prevent African Swine Fever from Entering the U.S.

Federally Regulated

Videos

Selected Resources

The section below contains highly relevant resources for this species, organized by source.

Partnership
Federal Government
International Government
State and Local Government
Academic
Professional
Citations