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Emerald Ash Borer

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Emerald Ash Borer
Emerald Ash Borer, Adult - David Cappaert
Scientific Name: 
Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, 1888 (ITIS)
Common Name: 
Emerald ash borer (EAB)
Native To: 
Eastern Russia, Northern China, Japan, and Korea (McCullough and Usborne 2015)
Date of U.S. Introduction: 
Means of Introduction: 
Arrived accidentally in cargo imported from Asia (McCullough and Usborne 2015)
Impact: 
Ash trees lose most of their canopy within 2 years of infestation and die within 3-4 years (McCullough and Usborne 2015; Poland and McCullough 2006)

Spotlights

Montana Department of Agriculture.

The Montana Department of Agriculture (MDA) has issued an emergency quarantine order to protect against the introduction and spread of the emerald ash borer (EAB), a destructive wood-boring beetle that has already killed millions of ash trees in North America. The order was motivated by the removal of federal domestic quarantine regulations by the United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA APHIS). "It is important that we remain vigilant and do everything in our power to make sure that the emerald ash borer doesn’t find a way into Montana," said MDA Director Mike Foster. "This quarantine order protects the green ash woodland resources in eastern Montana that provide habitat for many wildlife species as well as economic benefits to livestock producers and rural communities."

Montana’s emergency quarantine order restricts EAB from entering the state in any form, as well as the movement of live ash trees, parts of ash trees capable of harboring live EAB, and any other articles determined potentially hazardous. MDA will accept public comment regarding the quarantine order until February 26, 2021.

University of Minnesota.

New research from the University of Minnesota’s Minnesota Invasive Terrestrial Plants and Pests Center (MITPPC) shows a possible path forward in controlling the invasive pest, the emerald ash borer (EAB), that threatens Minnesota’s nearly one billion ash trees.

In a recent study published in Fungal Biology, MITPPC researchers identified various fungi living in EAB-infested trees — a critical first step in finding fungi that may be harnessed to control the spread of EAB, and ultimately, prevent ash tree death. 

USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is changing its approach to fight the emerald ash borer (EAB) infestation that has spread through much of the United States. The Agency is publishing a final rule that removes the federal domestic EAB quarantine regulations that have proved ineffective and will redirect resources to more promising methods. Removing the quarantine regulations ends APHIS' domestic regulatory activities, which includes actions such as issuing permits, certificates and compliance agreements, making site visits, and conducting investigations of suspected violations.

The final rule and the response to the comments we received will publish in the Federal Register on December 15, 2020 and be rule will be effective on January 14, 2021. Documents may be viewed online at https://www.regulations.gov/docket/APHIS-2017-0056 upon publication.

For more information, see: Questions and Answers: Changes in the Approach toward Fighting the Emerald Ash Borer (Dec 2020; PDF | 692 KB)

USDA. Blog.

Humans adores trees. But humans also migrate and trade, habits that led to the accidental introduction of insects and diseases that harm trees and alter the landscape. Examples are easy to find and may be outside your front door: American elms that once dotted streets across America succumbed to Dutch elm disease. Now all colors of ash species – black, green, white, pumpkin, and blue – are threatened by emerald ash borer. The already uncommon butternut tree, also known as white walnut, faces the possibility of extinction from a mysterious attacker. Many invasive insects and fungi come from regions where native trees have evolved to resist their attacks. When these species enter the United States, they find trees that lack this resistance. There's no immediate end to this dismal pipeline, but there is hope on the horizon.

USDA. FS. Southern Research Station. CompassLive.

Electronic noses are sensitive to a vast suite of volatile organic compounds that every living organism emits. A new USDA Forest Service study shows that e-noses can detect emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) larvae lurking under the bark – an early, noninvasive detection method. "The results were quite spectacular," says Dan Wilson, a research plant pathologist and lead author of the study. The findings were published in the journal Biosensors.

USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

An interactive story map of the USDA’s history of combating the infestation and the continuing efforts to protect ash trees in the U.S.

Distribution / Maps / Survey Status

USDA. FS. Northern Research Station.

Select the non-indigenous forest pest to view maps depicting state and county distribution. Produced by: USDA, FS, Forest Health Protection, and its partners.

University of Georgia. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health.
Provides state, county, point and GIS data. Maps can be downloaded and shared.
Emerald Ash Borer Information Network.
See "EAB Locations" section, includes state maps
USDA. APHIS. Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey. National Agricultural Pest Information System.

Quarantine

Emerald Ash Borer Information Network.
Provides federal and state quarantine information.

Images

University of Georgia. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health.

Videos

Google. YouTube; Great Lakes Restoration Initiative.

Selected Resources

The section below contains highly relevant resources for this species, organized by source. Or, to display all related content view all resources for Emerald Ash Borer.

Council or Task Force

Washington State Recreation and Conservation Office. Washington Invasive Species Council.

Partnership
Emerald Ash Borer Information Network.

European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

Massachusetts Introduced Pests Outreach Project.

National Plant Diagnostic Network.

You can become a more effective First Detector by familiarizing yourself with invasive target pests and pathogens known to exist in the U.S. If you think you have encountered one of the species or disease complexes listed, report its presence.

IUCN. Species Survival Commission. Invasive Species Specialist Group.

Ontario's Invading Species Awareness Program (Canada).

New York Invasive Species Clearinghouse.

Emerald ash borer was first confirmed in New York in June 2009 near Randolph, in western Cattaraugus County. The rapid spread of the beetle through North America is most likely due to the transport of infested firewood, ash nursery stock, unprocessed ash logs, and other ash products. In an effort to slow the continued spread of EAB, both Federal and New York State agencies have instituted quarantines of infested areas to regulate the transport of ash products.

Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, Galveston Bay Estuary Program; Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC).

Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection.
Federal Government

USDA. FS. Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry.

USDA. FS. Northern Research Station.
USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.
USDA. APHIS. Plant Protection and Quarantine.
International Government
Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry (Canada).
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service.

Canadian Food Inspection Agency.

Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service.

State and Local Government

Maryland Department of Natural Resources. Forest Service.

See also: Includes Invasive Plants and Insects Fact Sheets for additional species to help control invasive species in Maryland

Colorado Department of Agriculture. Division of Plant Industry.

Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) was found in Boulder, CO, in September 2013. As a non-native insect, EAB lacks predators to keep it in check. EAB only attacks ash trees in the genus Fraxinus (so mountain ash are not susceptible). EAB is responsible for the death of millions of ash trees in the Midwest. Help protect Colorado's ash trees! Don't move firewood, and consider chemical treatments to protect high-value ash trees.

Illinois Department of Agriculture. Bureau of Environmental Programs. Division of Natural Resources.
Native to Asia, the Emerald Ash Borer is an exotic beetle that was unknown in North America until June 2002 when it was discovered as the cause for the decline of many ash trees in southeast Michigan and neighboring Windsor, Ontario, Canada. It has since been found in several states from the east coast spanning across the midwest and in June 2006, we discovered that it had taken up residence in Illinois.
Maryland Department of Agriculture.
Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development.

Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources.

The emerald ash borer is a half-inch long metallic green beetle with the scientific name Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. Larvae of this beetle feed under the bark of ash trees. Their feeding eventually girdles and kills branches and entire trees. Emerald ash borer was first identified in North America in southeastern Michigan in 2002.

North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. North Carolina Forest Service.
The emerald ash borer is a metallic green beetle that bores into ash trees feeding on tissues beneath the bark, ultimately killing the tree. It is not native to the United States and was first found in the U.S. near Detroit, Michigan in 2002. In 2013, the emerald ash borer was found in Granville, Person, Vance, and Warren counties in North Carolina. In 2015 it was found in many additional counties, and a statewide EAB quarantine went into effect in North Carolina.

Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation. Bureau of Forest Fire Control and Forestry.

South Dakota Department of Agriculture.

Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station.
See also: Insect Fact Sheets for more resources
Missouri Department of Conservation.
See also: For more information about Invasive Tree Pests (insects and diseases) that are not native to Missouri

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

Minnesota Department of Agriculture.

New York State Department of Environmental Conservation.

New Jersey Department of Agriculture.

Emerald Ash Borer was discovered in New Jersey in May 2014 in Somerset County, and as of October 2015 has also been found in Bergen, Burlington, Essex, Hunterdon, Mercer, Middlesex, and Monmouth counties. Infestations throughout the U.S. and Canada have killed tens of millions of ash trees since 2002. Report signs of the beetle to the Department of Agriculture at 609-406-6939.

Indiana Department of Natural Resources. Entomology and Plant Pathology.

Academic
University of Minnesota.
IPM of Midwest Landscapes is available for educating growers, landscapers, managers, and consumers in the principles of IPM and its application to managing the over 150 common insect species in Midwest landscapes.

Michigan State University. Integrated Pest Management Program.

See also: IPM Scouting in Woody Landscape Plants for more pests and diseases

Kansas State University. Kansas Forest Service.
Michigan Technological University. Forest Resources and Environmental Sciences. Center for Exotic Species.

Iowa State University. Extension and Outreach. Pesticide Safety Information Program.

The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an exotic insect pest from Asia. The flattened, creamy white larval stage feeds below the bark and cuts off the living, water and nutrient conducting vessels causing tree death. EAB has been found in 13 Iowa counties (Allamakee, Black Hawk, Boone, Bremer, Cedar, Des Moines, Henry, Jasper, Jefferson, Muscatine, Story, Union, and Wapello). As of February 2014, all 99 counties in Iowa have been quarantined (Treatment Map) by the Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship to slow the movement of this destructive pest to non-quarantined areas/states.
Purdue University Extension (Indiana).
Use this website to find out where in Indiana the emerald ash borer (EAB) is located, how to combat this invasive pest, and what you can do to preserve ash trees in Indiana. To report a find of EAB in Indiana, call Indiana DNR toll-free 1-866-NO-EXOTIC.

Pennsylvania State University. Cooperative Extension.

University of Kentucky. College of Agriculture. Entomology.
Officials with the Office of the State Entomologist in the University of Kentucky Entomology Department on May 22, 2009 announced two confirmed occurrences in Kentucky of emerald ash borer, an invasive insect pest of ash trees. These are the first findings of this destructive insect in the state.

Nebraska Forest Service.

The Nebraska Department of Agriculture (NDA) has confirmed that emerald ash borer (EAB) was discovered during a site inspection in Omaha's Pulaski Park on June 6, 2016. Nebraska becomes the 27th state to confirm the presence of EAB, joining neighboring states of Iowa, Missouri, Kansas and Colorado. NDA has issued a quarantine (Oct 2018; PDF | 263 KB) prohibiting regulated articles from leaving the quarantine area. 

University of Missouri Extension.

Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an exotic, invasive, wood-boring insect that infests and kills native North American ash trees, both in forests and landscape plantings. With EAB now in several areas of the Show-Me State - and its ability to hitchhike on firewood - the probability of it spreading to noninfected areas in the state is high.
Professional
College of Menominee Nation Sustainable Development Institute.
Note: EAB impacts on American Indian Communities

Citations