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Emerald Ash Borer

Scientific Name

Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, 1888 (ITIS)

Common Name

Emerald ash borer (EAB)

Native To

Eastern Russia, Northern China, Japan, and Korea (McCullough and Usborne 2015)

Date of U.S. Introduction
Means of Introduction

Arrived accidentally in cargo imported from Asia (McCullough and Usborne 2015)

Impact

Ash trees lose most of their canopy within 2 years of infestation and die within 3-4 years (McCullough and Usborne 2015; Poland and McCullough 2006)

Emerald Ash Borer

Emerald Ash Borer, Adult

Credit

David Cappaert

Find more images

Spotlights

  • Fighting Invasive Emerald Ash Borers with Woodpeckers and Citizen Scientists

    • May 24, 2022
    • USDA. Forest Service.

    • Invasive non-native insects have been called the "wildfires of the East," given the damage they cause to trees. One pest, the emerald ash borer, has killed hundreds of millions of rural and urban ash trees. To help arborists and city planners track and treat potential outbreaks, U.S. Forest Service scientists seek efficient monitoring techniques.

  • Urban Hotspots for Invasive Insects

    • Apr 26, 2022
    • USDA. FS. Southern Research Station. CompassLive.

    • About 82% of the U.S. population lives in urban areas, and that number is growing. “Frequent travel to and from cities means that trees in urban areas have high rates of exposure to invasive species like the emerald ash borer,” says Frank Koch, a USDA Forest Service research ecologist and co-author of a study in the Journal of Applied Ecology about the impacts of invasive insects on urban trees.

  • USDA Statement of Confirmation of Emerald Ash Borer in Oregon

    • Jul 15, 2022
    • USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

    • On July 11, 2022, APHIS confirmed the identification of emerald ash borer in Washington County, Oregon. The Oregon Department of Agriculture believes that the infestation has been in Washington County at least 3-5 years. Regulatory efforts to stop the spread of emerald ash borer were not effective and it has spread through much of the United States. Emerald ash borer is now in 36 States and the District of Columbia.

      APHIS encourages the public to be on the lookout and report emerald ash borer, and has outreach materials including videos, photos, factsheets, and online reporting available. You can also sign up to receive the emerald ash borer program report through our Stakeholder Registry [PDF | 135 KB].

  • APHIS Changes Approach to Fight Emerald Ash Borer (EAB)

    • Dec 14, 2020
    • USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

    • The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is changing its approach to fight the emerald ash borer (EAB) infestation that has spread through much of the United States. The Agency is publishing a final rule that removes the federal domestic EAB quarantine regulations that have proved ineffective and will redirect resources to more promising methods. Removing the quarantine regulations ends APHIS' domestic regulatory activities, which includes actions such as issuing permits, certificates and compliance agreements, making site visits, and conducting investigations of suspected violations.

      The final rule and the response to the comments we received will publish in the Federal Register on December 15, 2020 and be rule will be effective on January 14, 2021. Documents may be viewed online at https://www.regulations.gov/docket/APHIS-2017-0056 upon publication.

      For more information, see: Questions and Answers: Changes in the Approach toward Fighting the Emerald Ash Borer (Dec 2020; PDF | 692 KB)

  • After a Blight, the Trees that Survived Need Your Help

    • Feb 25, 2020
    • USDA. Blog.

    • Humans adores trees. But humans also migrate and trade, habits that led to the accidental introduction of insects and diseases that harm trees and alter the landscape. Examples are easy to find and may be outside your front door: American elms that once dotted streets across America succumbed to Dutch elm disease. Now all colors of ash species – black, green, white, pumpkin, and blue – are threatened by emerald ash borer. The already uncommon butternut tree, also known as white walnut, faces the possibility of extinction from a mysterious attacker. Many invasive insects and fungi come from regions where native trees have evolved to resist their attacks. When these species enter the United States, they find trees that lack this resistance. There's no immediate end to this dismal pipeline, but there is hope on the horizon.

  • Don't Move Firewood

    • Nature Conservancy.

    • The Don’t Move Firewood campaign is an outreach partnership managed by The Nature Conservancy. The overarching goal of the campaign is to protect trees and forests all across North America from invasive insects and diseases that can travel in or on contaminated firewood. The central tenet of the Don’t Move Firewood campaign is that everyone has a role to play in slowing the spread of invasive tree killing insects and diseases, through making better informed firewood choices. For more information on how you can do your part, please see Frequently Asked Questions.

      See also:

      • Emerald Ash Borer Awareness Weed Toolkit -- During Emerald Ash Borer Awareness Week (May 22-28, 2022) everyone is encouraged to take a few minutes to learn about the signs and symptoms of emerald ash borer infestation on ash trees so that the infestations can be better managed by local tree professionals and foresters.
      • Firewood Month Toolkit -- During Firewood Month (October), reduce firewood movement to slow the spread of forest pests and diseases via the firewood pathway.
  • The Emerald Ash Borer, EAB in the United States - A Story Map by USDA

    • USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

    • An interactive story map of the USDA’s history of combating the infestation and the continuing efforts to protect ash trees in the U.S.
      See also: APHIS Interactive Maps to explore plant and animal health or wildlife damage management data

Distribution / Maps / Survey Status

Quarantine

Videos

Selected Resources

The section below contains highly relevant resources for this species, organized by source.

Council or Task Force
Partnership
Federal Government
International Government
State and Local Government
  • Forest Pests: Invasive Plants and Insects of Maryland - Emerald Ash Borer [PDF, 368 KB]

  • Emerald Ash Borer

    • Colorado Department of Agriculture. Division of Plant Industry.

    • Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) was found in Boulder, CO, in September 2013. As a non-native insect, EAB lacks predators to keep it in check. EAB only attacks ash trees in the genus Fraxinus (so mountain ash are not susceptible). EAB is responsible for the death of millions of ash trees in the Midwest. Help protect Colorado's ash trees! Don't move firewood, and consider chemical treatments to protect high-value ash trees.

  • Emerald Ash Borer

    • Illinois Department of Agriculture. Bureau of Environmental Programs. Division of Natural Resources.

    • Native to Asia, the Emerald Ash Borer is an exotic beetle that was unknown in North America until June 2002 when it was discovered as the cause for the decline of many ash trees in southeast Michigan and neighboring Windsor, Ontario, Canada. It has since been found in several states from the east coast spanning across the midwest and in June 2006, we discovered that it had taken up residence in Illinois.

  • Emerald Ash Borer

    • Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources.

    • The emerald ash borer is a half-inch long metallic green beetle with the scientific name Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. Larvae of this beetle feed under the bark of ash trees. Their feeding eventually girdles and kills branches and entire trees. Emerald ash borer was first identified in North America in southeastern Michigan in 2002.

  • Emerald Ash Borer

    • Maryland Department of Agriculture.

  • Emerald Ash Borer Frequently Asked Questions

    • North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. North Carolina Forest Service.

    • The emerald ash borer is a metallic green beetle that bores into ash trees feeding on tissues beneath the bark, ultimately killing the tree. It is not native to the United States and was first found in the U.S. near Detroit, Michigan in 2002. In 2013, the emerald ash borer was found in Granville, Person, Vance, and Warren counties in North Carolina. In 2015 it was found in many additional counties, and a statewide EAB quarantine went into effect in North Carolina.

  • Emerald Ash Borer in Connecticut

    • Connecticut Department of Energy & Environmental Protection.

    • The Emerald ash borer was first found in Connecticut during the week of July 16, 2012. Since that first find in Prospect, EAB has been found in many other parts of the state, particularly in towns in central and western Connecticut. DEEP, the CT Agricultural Experiment Station, USDA APHIS PPQ and the U.S. Forest Service are working together with local partners to slow the spread of the insect and to take steps to minimize its impact. This will be a long-term effort on the part of all involved.

  • Emerald Ash Borer in Massachusetts

    • Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation. Bureau of Forest Fire Control and Forestry.

  • Emerald Ash Borer in South Dakota

    • South Dakota Department of Agriculture.

  • Fact Sheet: Emerald Ash Borer [PDF, 188 KB]

    • Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station.

    • See also: Insect Fact Sheets for more resources

  • Field Guide: Invasive - Emerald Ash Borer

    • Missouri Department of Conservation.

    • See also: For more information about Invasive Tree Pests (insects and diseases) that are not native to Missouri

  • Forest Health - Emerald Ash Borer

    • Iowa Department of Natural Resources.

  • Forest Health - Emerald Ash Borer

    • Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  • Insect Pests & Diseases - Emerald Ash Borer

    • Minnesota Department of Agriculture.

  • Nuisance & Invasive Species - Emerald Ash Borer

    • New York State Department of Environmental Conservation.

  • Plant Health Certification & Export - Emerald Ash Borer

    • Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development.

  • Plant Industry - Emerald Ash Borer

    • New Jersey Department of Agriculture.

    • Emerald Ash Borer was discovered in New Jersey in May 2014 in Somerset County, and as of October 2015 has also been found in Bergen, Burlington, Essex, Hunterdon, Mercer, Middlesex, and Monmouth counties. Infestations throughout the U.S. and Canada have killed tens of millions of ash trees since 2002. Report signs of the beetle to the Department of Agriculture at 609-406-6939.

  • Regulatory & Scientific Information: Emerald Ash Borer

    • Indiana Department of Natural Resources. Entomology and Plant Pathology.

Academic
Citations