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Virulent Newcastle Disease

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Virulent Newcaster Disease
Scientific Name:

Avian paramyxovirus 1 (APMV-1) (Amarasinghe et al. 2017)

Common Name:
Virulent Newcastle disease (vND), Exotic Newcastle disease (END), Velogenic Newcastle disease, Asiatic Newcastle disease
Virulent newcastle disease symptoms, open mouth breathing with moderate swelling of the comb and wattles - Photo by USDA, Animal and Health Inspection Service


  • USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.
    USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) confirmed the presence of virulent Newcastle disease in a commercial chicken flock in Riverside County, California. This finding is part of an outbreak in southern California that began in May 2018 in backyard exhibition birds. This is the first case in commercial poultry since 2003.

    Virulent Newcastle disease is not a food safety concern.  No human cases of Newcastle disease have ever occurred from eating poultry products.
  • USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

    The United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) confirmed the presence of virulent Newcastle disease in a small flock of backyard exhibition chickens in Los Angeles County, California. It is important to note that the presence of the disease is not a food safety concern. This is the first case of virulent Newcastle disease, previously referred to as exotic Newcastle disease, in the U.S. since 2003.

Native To:
First reported in Indonesia and the United Kingdom in 1926 (Brown and Bevins 2017)
Date of U.S. Introduction:

First outbreak in the U.S. occurred in 1971. The disease was eradicated, but additional outbreaks have occurred in 2002-2003 and 2018. (California Department of Food and Agriculture)

Means of Introduction:
Possibly through illegally imported birds; may also be introduced to domestic flocks from wild birds (Brown and Bevins 2017)
Extremely contagious and highly lethal disease of poultry; exposure can lead to mild symptoms in humans (Brown and Bevins 2017)


Selected Resources

The section below contains selected highly relevant resources for this species, organized by source. To view all related content for this species, click on "View all resources for species" in the top left of this page.


IUCN. Species Survival Commission. Invasive Species Specialist Group.
World Organization for Animal Health.
See also: Technical Disease Cards for more diseases

Federal Government

USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.
DOI. USGS. National Wildlife Health Center.
See the complete field manual, a revised and expanded version of the 1988 Volume 1, Field Guide to Wildlife Diseases, was funded by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Federal Aid, Administrative Grant No. AP95-017.

International Government

Western Australia Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development. Agriculture and Food Division.
Victoria Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport and Resources (Australia).
Alberta Sustainable Resource Development (Canada). Fish and Wildlife.
See also: Common Wildlife Diseases & Parasites for more fact sheets
Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Australia). Office of Biosecurity.

State and Local Government

Montana Department of Livestock. Animal Health Division.
Georgia Department of Agriculture.
Texas Animal Health Commission.
See also: Poultry Health for more diseases
South Dakota Animal Industry Board.
See also: Avian Health for more information

California Department of Food and Agriculture. Animal Health Branch.

Pennsylvania Game Commission.


Iowa State University. Center for Food Security and Public Health.
University of California. Cooperative Extension.


American Poultry Association.
See also: Poultry Help/Disease Articles for more diseases