Foot and Mouth Disease
USDA. Agricultural Research Service.Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus spreads much more aggressively in pigs than previous research suggests, according to a new study by U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) scientists. The study, recently published in Scientific Reports, shows that pigs infected with the FMD virus were highly contagious to other pigs just 24 hours after infection—long before showing any clinical signs of infection such as fever and blisters. Foot-and-mouth disease continues to be the most important foreign disease of livestock worldwide, said Jonathan Arzt, lead investigator and veterinary medical officer with USDA’s Agricultural Research Service (ARS). Although the United States has not had an FMD outbreak since 1929, this highly contagious viral disease, which is sometimes fatal, is still considered a serious threat to U.S. agriculture.
First observed in 1514 in Italy (AVMA 2007)
Nine outbreaks of foot and mouth disease occurred in the U.S. between 1905 and 1929. It is widespread through the world, but it was eradicated from the U.S. in 1929. (Segarra and Rawson 2001)
Contagious disease of cattle, swine, sheep, goats, deer, and other cloven-hoofed animals. Foot and mouth disease is considered to be the most economically devastating livestock disease in the world, and represents a worst-case scenario for livestock diseases because of the variety of species involved, rapid spread, and difficulty in controlling outbreaks. The 2001 FMD outbreak in Great Britain resulted in the slaughter of more than 6 million animals and an estimated economic loss of 20 billion dollars. (AVMA 2007)
Foot-and-mouth Disease, Newcastle Disease, Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza, African Swine Fever, Classical Swine Fever, Swine Vesicular Disease, And Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Prohibited And Restricted ImportationsU.S. Government Printing Office. Electronic Code of Federal Regulations.Title 9: Animals and Animal Products, Part 94
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American Veterinary Medical Association. 2007. Foot and Mouth Disease Backgrounder (PDF | 28 KB).
Belsham, G.J. 1993. Distinctive features of foot-and-mouth disease virus, a member of the picornavirus family; aspects of virus protein synthesis, protein processing and structure. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology 60(3):241-260.
Center for Food Security and Public Health. 2007. Foot and Mouth Disease: Fiebre Aftosa (PDF | 309 KB). Iowa State University.
Segarra, A.E. and J.M. Rawson. 2001. Foot and Mouth Disease: A Threat to U.S. Agriculture (PDF | 41 KB) (CRS Report for Congress RS20890). Congressional Research Service.