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Foot and Mouth Disease

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Foot-and-mouth disease
Scientific Name:

Family Picornaviridae, genus Aphthovirus (Belsham 1993)

Common Name:
Foot and mouth disease, hoof-and-mouth disease
Photo:
Infrared image of a cow infected with foot-and-mouth-disease virus. Note that the hooves are red. Red color in the hooves indicates heat - Photo by Craig Packer; USDA, ARS, Image Gallery
Native To:

First observed in 1514 in Italy (AVMA 2007)

Date of U.S. Introduction:

Nine outbreaks of foot and mouth disease occurred in the U.S. between 1905 and 1929. It is widespread through the world, but it was eradicated from the U.S. in 1929. (Segarra and Rawson 2001)

Means of Introduction:

Contact with infected animals (CFSPH 2007); eating infected meat (Segarra and Rawson 2001)

Impact:

Contagious disease of cattle, swine, sheep, goats, deer, and other cloven-hoofed animals. Foot and mouth disease is considered to be the most economically devastating livestock disease in the world, and represents a worst-case scenario for livestock diseases because of the variety of species involved, rapid spread, and difficulty in controlling outbreaks. The 2001 FMD outbreak in Great Britain resulted in the slaughter of more than 6 million animals and an estimated economic loss of 20 billion dollars. (AVMA 2007)

Current U.S. Distribution:
Not currently established

Selected Resources

The section below contains selected highly relevant resources for this species, organized by source. To view all related content for this species, click on "View all resources for species" in the top left of this page.

Federal Government

USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Veterinary Services.

Academic

Iowa State University. Center for Food Security and Public Health.

Citations