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Citrus Greening

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Citrus greening
Scientific Name:
Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus
Common Name:
Citrus greening, Huanglongbing (HLB), yellow shoot disease, yellow dragon disease
Citrus greening symptoms (brown necrotic or aborted seeds in infected mandarin) - Photo by J.M. Bové; INRA Centre de Recherches de Bordeaux, France


Native To:
Date of U.S. Introduction:
The vector, Diaphorina citri, was first discovered in Florida in 1998; the disease was first discovered in Florida in 2005; Louisiana in 2008; South Carolina and Georgia in 2009; California and Texas in 2012 (Michaud 2004; Wang and Trivedi 2013)
Means of Introduction:
Possibly through illegally imported plant material (Michaud 2004)
Bacterial disease that infects citrus trees, where it shortens the lifespan of trees and reduces fruit yield and quality (Wang and Trivedi 2013)

Distribution/Maps/Survey Status




Selected Resources

The section below contains highly relevant resources for this species, organized by source. Or, to display all related content view all resources for Citrus Greening.


USDA. APHIS. PPQ. CPHST. Identification Technology Program.

See also: Citrus Resource

Citrus Greening Solutions.
European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.
U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Partners of the HLB Multi-Agency Coordination (MAC) Group to jointly collaborate on policy decisions, establish priorities, allocate critical resources, and collect, analyze, and disseminate information.
Texas Citrus Pest and Disease Management Corporation.

Federal Government

USDA. Agricultural Research Service.
USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

USDA. APHIS. Plant Protection and Quarantine.

USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

International Government

Secretariat of the Pacific Community. Plant Protection Service.

See also: Pest Advisory Leaflets for more resources

Business Queensland (Australia).

State and Local Government

California Department of Food and Agriculture. Plant Health Division.
California Department of Food and Agriculture. Citrus Pest and Disease Prevention Program.
The Citrus Pest & Disease Prevention Program is an initiative funded by California citrus growers and administered by the California Department of Food and Agriculture dedicated to combating serious pests and diseases that threaten the state's citrus trees.

Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Plant Industry.


University of California. Agriculture and Natural Resources.

ANR Publication 8218

University of California. Agriculture and Natural Resources.
Provides information to both growers and home gardeners, in two distinct sub-sites -- to get the basics on the insect and the disease it can vector, how to inspect your trees, how to treat your tree if you find ACP, critical things to do to help contain the insect population and deal with Huanglongbing (HLB), as well as additional information more specific to California.
Louisiana State University. AgCenter Research and Extension.
See also: Plant Diagnostic Center - Publications for more resources
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Extension.
Electronic Data Information Source - publication resources

University of California - Riverside. Center for Invasive Species Research.

University of California. Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program.
See also: Pest Notes are peer-reviewed scientific publications about specific pests or pest management topics, directed at California's home and landscape audiences.
University of Florida. IFAS. Citrus Research and Education Center.
University of Minnesota.
University of Minnesota's electronic textbook of Integrated Pest Management, Radcliffe's IPM World Textbook, features contributed chapters by internationally recognized experts.