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Citrus Canker

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Citrus canker -
Scientific Name:

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri

Common Name:
Citrus canker, Citrus bacterial canker
Citrus canker, fruit symptoms on sweet orange - Photo by Jeffrey W. Lotz; Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services
Native To:

Believed to have originated in Southeast Asia or India (Polek 2007)

Date of U.S. Introduction:

First discovered in 1910, but eradicated in 1931; another outbreak was discovered in 1986, and again in 1995 (Dewdney 2013)

Means of Introduction:

First arrived in seedlings imported from Japan in 1910 (Dewdney 2013)


Bacterial disease that infects citrus trees, where it destroys fruit and causes decreased production (CABI)




Selected Resources

The section below contains selected highly relevant resources for this species, organized by source. To view all related content for this species, click on "View all resources for species" in the top left of this page.


USDA. APHIS. PPQ. CPHST. Identification Technology Program.
See also: Citrus Resource
European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.
IUCN. Species Survival Commission. Invasive Species Specialist Group.

Federal Government

Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce.
USDA. APHIS. Plant Protection and Quarantine.
USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

International Government

Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Australia). 
New South Wales Department of Primary Industries (Australia).

State and Local Government

Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Plant Industry.


University of California - Riverside. Center for Invasive Species Research.

University of California. Agriculture and Natural Resources.

ANR Publication 8218

Louisiana State University. AgCenter Research and Extension.
Publication 3269
See also: Plant Diagnostic Center - Publications for more resources
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Extension.
Electronic Data Information Source - publication resources
University of Florida. IFAS. Citrus Research and Education Center.


American Phytopathological Society.