First identified in Europe (Aguayo et al. 2013)
European introductions occurred through infected nursery stock (Adams et al. 2008)
Infects and kills alder trees (trees of the genus Alnus) (Gibbs et al. 1999)
USDA. APHIS. Plant Protection and Quarantine.
A Federal Order is a legal document issued in response to an emergency when the Administrator of APHIS considers it necessary to take regulatory action to protect agriculture or prevent the entry and establishment into the United States of a pest or disease. Federal Orders are effective immediately and contain the specific regulatory requirements.
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Adams, G.C., M. Catal, L. Trummer, E.M. Hansen, P. Reeser, and J.J. Worrall. 2008. Phytophthora alni subsp. uniformis found in Alaska beneath thinleaf alders. Plant Health Progress.
Aguayo, J., G.C. Adams, F. Halkett, M. Catal, C. Husson, Z.A. Nagy, E.M. Hansen, B. Marcais, and P. Frey. 2013. Strong genetic differentiation between North American and European populations of Phytophthora alni subsp. uniformis. Phytopathology 103(2):190-199.
Brasier, C.M., S.A. Kirk, J. Delcan, D.E. Cooke, T. Jung, and W.A. in 't Veld. 2004. Phytophthora alni sp. nov. and its variants: designation of emerging heteroploid hybrid pathogens spreading on Alnus trees. Mycological Research 108(1):1172-1184.
Gibbs, J.N., M.A. Lipscombe and A.J. Peace. 1999. The impact of Phytophthora disease on riparian populations of common alder (Alnus glutinosa) in Southern Britain. European Journal of Forestry 29(1):1-88.