Deceptively delicate and fragile in appearance, the Eurasian watermilfoil forms thick mats in shallow areas of a lake, quickly growing and spreading to block sunlight, killing off native aquatic plants that fish and other underwater species rely on for food and shelter. In North America, the plant threatens the diversity and abundance of native plants as well as the ecological balance of lakes and ponds, which in turn adversely affects recreational opportunities. If left unchecked, invasive watermilfoil will spread through a lake, or even to other lakes by transmission. An expert team of USDA Forest Service divers with invasive species and aquatics expertise is focused on rooting out the plant.
Distribution / Maps / Survey Status
The section below contains highly relevant resources for this species, organized by source. Or, to display all related content view all resources for Eurasian Watermilfoil.
Council or Task Force
Alberta Invasive Species Council (Canada).
See also: Fact Sheets for more information about individual invasive species, including those listed as "Prohibited Noxious" and "Noxious" under the Alberta Weed Control Act
California Invasive Plant Council.
Washington State Recreation and Conservation Office. Washington Invasive Species Council.
Ontario's Invading Species Awareness Program (Canada).
New York Invasive Species Clearinghouse.
Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, Galveston Bay Estuary Program; Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC).
Centre for Invasive Species Solutions; Atlas of Living Australia; Australian Government. Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment.
Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Environmental Research Center. Marine Invasions Research Lab.
USDA. ARS. National Genetic Resources Program. GRIN-Global.
Business Queensland (Australia).
State and Local Government
New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services.
See also: Publications - Invasive for more resources
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.
Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources.
See also: Invasive Plant Fact Sheets for plant species (trees, shrubs, vines, herbs and aquatic plants) that have impacted the state's natural lands
Colorado Department of Agriculture. Conservation Services Division. Noxious Weed Program.
University of Minnesota. Minnesota Aquatic Invasive Species Research Center.
University of Maine. Cooperative Extension.
See also: Natural Resources Publications for entire "Maine Invasive Plants" series
University of Florida. IFAS. Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants.
- Eiswerth, M.E., S.G. Donaldson, and W.S. Johnson. 2000. Potential environmental impacts and economic damages of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) in western Nevada and northeastern California. Weed Technology 14(3):511-518.
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Myriophyllum spicatum. [Accessed Sep 10, 2014].
- Nichols, S.A., and B.H. Shaw. 1986. Ecological life histories of the three aquatic nuisance plants, Myriophyllum spicatum, Potamogeton crispus and Elodea canadensis. Hydrobiologia 131(1):3-21.
- Smith C.G., and J.W. Barko. 1990. Ecology of Eurasian watermilfoil (PDF | 1.1 MB). Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 28:55-64.