Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. (ITIS)
Native to the U.S., but the more invasive strains originated in Europe (Tulbure et al. 2007)
Invasive European strains probably introduced during the 1800s (Saltonstall 2002)
Possibly through ships' ballast (Saltonstall 2002)
Crowds out native species (Tewksbury et al. 2002)
Distribution / Maps / Survey Status
The section below contains highly relevant resources for this species, organized by source.
Council or Task Force
State and Local Government
Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Phragmites australis. [Accessed Aug 27, 2023].
Saltonstall, K. 2002. Cryptic invasion by a non-native genotype of the common reed, Phragmites australis, into North America. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99(4):2445-2449.
Tewksbury, L., R. Casagrande, B. Blossey, P. Hafliger, and M. Schwarzlander. 2002. Potential for biological control of Phragmites australis in North America. Biological Control 23(2):191-212.
Tulbure, M.G., C.A. Johnston, and D.L. Auger. 2007. Rapid invasion of a Great Lakes coastal wetland by non-native Phragmites australis and Typha. Journal of Great Lakes Research 33(sp3):269-279.