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Early Detection and Rapid Response

Provides general resources for detection methods for invasive species and coordinated responses to these threats. Early Detection and Rapid Response (EDRR) can stop the spread of new and emerging invasive species before they become established. It is one of the most cost-effective and ecologically viable methods for controlling invasive species and is well worth the effort to protect natural and agricultural resources.

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Spotlights

  • DOI. USGS. ScienceBase Catalog.
    USGS has published, and plans to update on a bimonthly basis into the foreseeable future, a dataset called "Catalog of U.S. Federal Early Detection/Rapid Response Invasive Species Databases and Tools." The catalog, developed in collaboration with the National Invasive Species Council Secretariat, is a multi-sheet spreadsheet that contains openly available, online, federally supported databases and tools dealing with various aspects of a potential national early detection and rapid response invasive species framework.
  • USDA. APHIS. Plant Protection and Quarantine.

    USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is charged with implementing Section 10007 of the 2014 Farm Bill (Jul 2015; 5.6 MB) to prevent the introduction or spread of plant pests and diseases that threaten U.S. agriculture and the environment. Under the Farm Bill, APHIS provides funding to strengthen the nation’s infrastructure for pest detection and surveillance, identification, and threat mitigation, while working to safeguard the nursery production system.


    Section 10007 authorizes permanent funding for the Plant Pest and Disease Management and Disaster Prevention Program (PPDMDP) and the National Clean Plant Network (NCPN), with $62.5 million in Commodity Credit Corporation funding allocated by Congress each year from FY 2014-FY2017 and $75 million per year in FY 2018 and beyond. At least $5 million must go to NCPN each year.
  • California Academy of Sciences; National Geographic Society.

    iNaturalist helps you identify the plants and animals around you. Get connected with a community of over 750,000 scientists and naturalists who can help you learn more about nature! By recording and sharing your observations, you’ll create research quality data for scientists working to better understand and protect nature. Experience and record nature with species identification technology by downloading the iNaturalist app (Android and iPhone) --  See Getting started:

    • Find Wildlife - it can be any plant, animal, fungi, slime mold or evidence of life found in the wild
    • Take Pictures - be sure to notice the location
    • Share Observations - upload your findings to iNaturalist
    See also: Seek by iNaturalist is an educational tool and provides a kid-friendly alternative. Seek allows you to identify plants and animals from your photos by harnessing image recognition technology, drawing from existing data collected from observations on iNaturalist (no registration is required, and no user data is collected).
  • Great Lakes Commission.
    Aquatic invasive species inflict millions of dollars of ecological and economic damage to the Great Lakes, with impacts on coastal industries, water quality, native fish and wildlife and human health. Recently, Blue Accounting, in partnership with state and federal agencies, launched a new suite of web-based resources and tools to support early detection of aquatic invasive species in the Great Lakes. The earlier new aquatic invasive species are detected, the easier and less expensive it is to avoid potentially devastating consequences of a large invasion. The new tools released by the Blue Accounting initiative help target efforts to focus on high-risk species and locations across the 11,000 miles of shoreline and 94,000 miles of surface area that make up the Great Lakes basin.
  • USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

    The Pest Detection program supports APHIS’ goal of safeguarding U.S. agricultural and environmental resources by ensuring that new introductions of harmful plant pests and diseases are detected as soon as possible, before they have a chance to cause significant damage. A strong domestic agricultural pest detection system is an essential element in providing a continuum of checks from offshore preclearance programs, domestic port inspections, and surveys in rural and urban sites across the United States.

  • United States Department of the Interior.
    In response to the harmful impacts invasive species have on the Nation’s natural and cultural resources, the Department of the Interior released an interdepartmental report, Safeguarding America’s Lands and Waters from Invasive Species: A National Framework for Early Detection and Rapid Response. The report proposes to stop their spread through early detection and rapid response (EDRR) actions—a coordinated set of actions to find and eradicate potential invasive species before they spread and cause harm. View the full press release: Interior Department Announces Framework to Safeguard the Nation's Lands and Waters from Invasive Species (Feb 18, 2016)

Selected Resources

The section below contains selected highly relevant resources for this subject, organized by source. To view all related content for this subject, click on "View all resources for subject" in the top left of this page.

Council or Task Force

National Invasive Species Council Secretariat.
Invader Detectives has been conceptualized as a national program to facilitate the detection of invasive species in urban environments. The majority of invasive species enter the country through the large commercial sea ports and airports located in our Nation’s cities. If we can rapidly detect and respond to potentially harmful non-native species at or near our borders, we can prevent them from spreading to natural areas and agricultural landscapes. Ultimately, this Contractor’s Report is intended to serve as the conceptual framework for developing and implementing Invader Detectives on a national scale through a chapter-based (regional) model. It is a living document and should not be regarded as final guidance. We welcome your input at invasive_species@ios.doi.gov. See also NISC and NISC Secretariat Products for more resources.

Partnership

Mississippi River Basin Panel on Aquatic Nuisance Species.
Rapid response actions are often complex, costly, and controversial, and therefore advanced planning for rapid response prior to an introduction is crucial. The Mississippi River Basin Panel on AIS (MRBP) has developed this model rapid response plan and supplemental attachments to assist natural resources management agencies effectively plan and quickly implement rapid response actions. In addition to providing information on rapid response planning, the model plan includes a template that can be used by states in developing their own rapid response plans. See also: MRBP Documents for more resources.

USDA. APHIS. PPQ. CPHST. Identification Technology Program.

Native to Asia, the spotted lanternfly has quickly spread since its initial detection in 2014. The insect is not a strong flier, yet its U.S. range is expanding, mostly due to the movement of vehicles, outdoor furniture, or other objects to which females glue their inconspicuous egg masses. Includes ID aids to help identify the spotted lanternfly in all its life stages, from egg mass through adult.

National Plant Diagnostic Network.

NPDN is a national network of diagnostic laboratories that rapidly and accurately detect and report pathogens that cause plant diseases of national interest, particularly those that could be deemed to be a biosecurity risk. The specific purpose of the NPDN is to provide a cohesive, distributed system to quickly detect and identify pests and pathogens of concern.

International Union for Conservation of Nature.

This report offers recommendations to improve biosecurity measures at U.S. ports, as well as a possible funding mechanism based upon the polluter-pays principle.

Pacific Biosecurity; Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme; Pacific Community.
Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission. Aquatic Invasive Species Network.

Federal Government

USDA. APHIS. Plant Protection and Quarantine.
USDA's Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) continuously takes steps to enhance our ability to exclude, control, and eradicate pests and increase the safety of agricultural trade. Across the country, PPQ worked with the States and other partners to detect, contain, and when possible, eradicate invading pests. On the world stage, PPQ worked closely with our international trading partners to develop and promote science-based standards, helping to create a safe, fair, and predictable agricultural trade system that minimizes the spread of invasive plant pests and diseases. Learn about the many successes and accomplishments captured in the 2018 report (APHIS 81-05-021) and how PPQ is working every day to keep U.S. agriculture healthy and profitable.
USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.
APHIS created the webpage to make it easier for its customers to find critical information on pests and diseases of concern. With this tool, members of the public will have the information they need to report pests and diseases and together we can protect America’s agriculture and natural resources. This page lists all pest and disease programs managed by APHIS as part of its mission to protect American agriculture and natural resources. Users can search by type (plant, animal), keyword (avian, fruit fly, cotton), or by the specific pest or disease (coconut rhinoceros beetle, brucellosis). You can also scroll through the page, which lists the pests and diseases alphabetically and includes a corresponding image.  
DOI. United States Geological Survey.
While invasive species prevention is the first line of defense, even the best prevention efforts will not stop all invasive species. Early Detection and Rapid Response (EDRR) is defined as a coordinated set of actions to find and eradicate potential invasive species in a specific location before they spread and cause harm. USGS activities that support EDRR span the geography of the country and address organisms and pathways most appropriate to address the needs of our partners. USGS provides scientific support to DOI Bureaus and other partners to aid in implementation of EDRR efforts and inform management actions.
DOI. United States Geological Survey.
U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2012–5162. The NPS I&M Program, in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Status and Trends Program, compiled this document to provide guidance and insight to parks and other natural areas engaged in developing early-detection monitoring protocols for invasive plants. While several rapid response frameworks exist, there is no consistent or comprehensive guidance informing the active detection of nonnative plants early in the invasion process. Early-detection was selected as a primary focus for invasive-species monitoring because, along with rapid response, it is a key strategy for successful management of invasive species.
USDA. ARS. Office of Pest Management.
These recovery plans are a cooperative effort of university, industry, and government scientists. The plans outline what the scientists know about the disease, indicate the current preparedness, suggest the best IPM approach, and recommend priority research and education needs.
USDA. APHIS. Plant Protection and Quarantine.
State Plant Health Directors (SPHD) direct federal APHIS-PPQ pest detection and regulatory activities in cooperation with state officials. SPHDs coordinate the initial PPQ emergency response if an exotic pest is detected in the state. To report a pest, contact your local APHIS office or call USDA Customer Service toll free at 1-844-820-2234 (Monday through Friday, 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Eastern).

International Government

European Environment Agency.
Invasive alien species (IAS) have become a major driver of biodiversity loss, second only to habitat fragmentation in recent decade. Europe is particularly affected by alien species, which are invading the continent an unprecedented pace. Their impact means that many of the region's rarest endemic species are on the brink of extinction and that our well-being and economies are affected. Establishing an early warning and rapid response framework for Europe become a key target. The present publication is the EEA contribution to achieving this goal.

Academic

Michigan State University. Integrated Pest Management Program.
Provides information about exotic plant pests with the highest potential to enter Michigan. These likely invaders are presented in fact sheets with descriptions of their biology and how to identify them. Risk maps forecast locations where invasives are likely to establish.

Professional

North American Invasive Species Management Association.