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Prevention

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Provides general resources for invasive species prevention. Awareness and education are extremely important as prevention is key to combating invasive species.

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Spotlights

North American Invasive Species Management Association.

A new invasive species coalition is celebrating significant milestones in preventing expansion of invasive species after the first anniversary of an important agreement. The North American Invasive Species Management Association, Wildlife Forever, the National Park Service, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service are working to implement on-the-ground strategies to engage the American public and help prevent the spread of invasive species under the new agreement.

Wildlife Forever.

Wildlife Forever and Major League Fishing (MLF) announced that the two organizations have signed an important Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) to combat the spread of invasive species. The new MOU will work to integrate Clean Drain Dry communications and marketing through tournament operations, angler education, and community outreach. Professional anglers are ambassadors for the fishing industry but also key conservationists in working to protect the sport. Integrating the Clean Drain Dry Initiative brand with professional anglers will give them the right tools to prevent spread and inspire their followers and fans to do the same.

Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks.

On Sunday, June 27, watercraft inspection stations in eastern Montana intercepted two boats entering the state carrying invasive mussels, making it the 35th and 36th mussel-fouled boats intercepted this year. This surpasses the total number of 35 mussel-fouled boats intercepted in 2020.

Fish, Wildlife & Park staff reminds anyone transporting motorized or nonmotorized boats into Montana that an inspection is required before launching, and stopping at ALL open watercraft inspection stations is required. Failing to stop at an inspection station can result in a fine of up to $500. Many residents of western states, including Montana, are buying boats out of the Midwest or southwestern U.S., where invasive mussels are common. The record number of interceptions is a reminder for people purchasing boats from other states to clean, drain and dry the vessel.

University of Wisconsin Sea Grant.

You could say that preventing the spread of aquatic invasive species (AIS) is a team sport. While it takes the professional efforts of natural resource managers, AIS specialists and others in the environmental field, it also takes the cooperation of the public. Yet for community members to take necessary actions, they must first be aware of the negative impacts AIS can have and how to stop their spread. Communicating with them about AIS in an effective way is vital.

New research from Wisconsin Sea Grant Aquatic Invasive Species Outreach Specialist Tim Campbell, University of Wisconsin-Madison Associate Professor Bret Shaw and consultant Barry T. Radler sheds new light on such communication. The researchers analyzed which communication strategies are most effective and which may pose unintended problems. The team's findings were published online Aug. 14 in the journal Environmental Management (“Testing Emphasis Message Frames and Metaphors on Social Media to Engage Boaters to Learn about Preventing the Spread of Zebra Mussels”).

DHS. Customs and Border Protection.

A cargo ship was ordered to leave the U.S. waters after U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) agriculture specialists at the Port of New Orleans discovered invasive insects found in the wood used to secure its previous cargo offloaded earlier in Mexico.

The wood used to pack the aluminum shipment was found to be infested with five separate pests, two of which required action. Two of the pests discovered pose an agricultural threat to the U.S. They were positively identified by USDA entomologists as Cerambyciae and Myrmicinae.

Utah Department of Natural Resources. Division of Wildlife Resources.

The Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, Clean Wake LLC, the National Park Service at Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and other partnering agencies are excited to announce a new first-of-its-kind dip tank method (YouTube video - Lake Powell AIS Dip Tank) that will revolutionize boat decontamination in the fight against invasive quagga mussels.

USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is seeking feedback on its proposed list of pests and diseases of concern that are likely to pose a high risk to U.S. agricultural and natural resources. APHIS will seek comments on a rolling basis, and there is no deadline for submission.

Section 12203 of the 2018 Farm Bill requires pest- and disease-planning activities that mirror the extensive planning efforts APHIS already performs. Specifically, it requires APHIS to develop a uniform list of pests and diseases that represent the gravest threat to the United States and to develop comprehensive response plans to ensure Federal and State governments are prepared to respond to them.

See Animal and Plant Diseases and Pests of Concern for more information. The agency will review comments from the public about the list, including suggestions of pests or diseases that should be added or removed. In providing comments, individuals should keep in mind that the Farm Bill definition of a pest or disease of concern limits this list to those that are “likely to pose a significant risk to the food and agricultural critical infrastructure sector” and is not meant to be an exhaustive list of all possible pests or diseases. Comments may be submitted to APHISPestDiseaseList@usda.gov.

USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

USDA is aware that people across the country have received suspicious, unsolicited packages of seed (July 2020) that appear to be coming from China. USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is working closely with the Department of Homeland Security’s Customs and Border Protection, other federal agencies, and State departments of agriculture to investigate the situation. Updates on this situation are provided on this USDA webpage.

USDA is committed to preventing the unlawful entry of prohibited seeds and protecting U.S. agriculture from invasive pests and noxious weeds. Visit the APHIS’ website, Smuggling Interdiction and Trade Compliance (SITC), to learn more about USDA’s efforts to stop agricultural smuggling and promote trade compliance.

See also: Amazon Bans Sale of Foreign Seeds in the U.S. (New York Times, Sep 8, 2020)
The company’s decision comes after thousands of U.S. residents reported receiving unsolicited packets of seed from China, prompting all 50 states to issue safety warnings.

USDA. Blog.

A big way invasive pests can move from one location to another is through unregulated internet sales. We are seeing more and more of these sales, and it’s a real concern. Why? With normal commercial or retail sales, we can use techniques like quarantines and fumigation to make sure that purchased items are pest-free or don’t enter pest-free areas. But many times, sales on the internet do not follow these techniques, opening up the chance for invasive pests to move freely to new areas. APHIS' Smuggling, Interdiction and Trade Compliance Office looks for these types of sale offers online and stops them.

National Sea Grant Law Center.

Initiative of the Western Regional Panel on Aquatic Nuisance Species (WRP). The goal of the WRP initiative is to develop a multi-state vision for watercraft inspection and decontamination (WID) programs. The National Sea Grant Law Center is an active participant in this initiative, providing legal research support and leading efforts to develop model legislation and regulations for WID Programs.

USDA. APHIS. Plant Protection and Quarantine.

USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) was charged with implementing Section 10007 initially part of the 2014 Farm Bill to prevent the introduction or spread of plant pests and diseases that threaten U.S. agriculture and the environment. Under the Farm Bill, APHIS provides funding to strengthen the nation’s infrastructure for pest detection and surveillance, identification, and threat mitigation, while working to safeguard the nursery production system.

For more information, see APHIS Programs that Receive Farm Bill Funds and  Plant Protection Act’s Section 7721.

Western Regional Panel on Aquatic Nuisance Species.

The Watercraft Inspection and Decontamination Committee (also known as the Decon Think Tank) is focused on refining, improving, troubleshooting and sharing the best possible techniques related to watercraft inspection and decontamination programs.

Selected Resources

The section below contains highly relevant resources for this subject, organized by source. Or, to display all related content view all resources for Prevention

Council or Task Force

California Invasive Plant Council.

Includes Prevention BMPs for Land Managers, Prevention BMPs for Transportation and Utility Corridors, BMPs for Protecting Wildlife When Using Herbicides, Land Manager’s Guide to Developing an Invasive Plant Management Plan, and Prevention BMPs for Central Sierra Tree Mortality Zones.

California Invasive Plant Council.

Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force.

Many teachers and students are unaware of the impacts of disposing unwanted live specimens (animals, plants, and microorganisms) into local waters, letting them go down drains or flushing them down the toilet. Recent releases of concern include goldfish, red swamp crayfish, Brazilian elodea, and red-eared slider turtles! It may seem simple and kind hearted, but releases can reduce biodiversity, water quality, harm fishing and native species. Besides not being good for the environment, releases are illegal in most states.
See also: Aquatic Nuisance Species (ANS) Task Force - Other Documents for more resources

Ontario Invasive Plant Council.

In recent years the Ontario Invasive Plant Council has developed Best Management Practices (BMPs) guides for more than 15 different invasive plants in Ontario. The BMPs provide you with a detailed background history on the plant, how to identify it and how to properly manage it. The series promotes the use of integrated pest management to achieve effective control.

Wisconsin Council on Forestry.

Invasive exotic species present what may be the greatest threat to the long-term health and sustainability of Wisconsin's forests. Human activities such as trading of goods, travel, gardening, and recreation have resulted in the introduction of many non-native plant and animal species to the state. The Council created the Forestry Invasives Leadership Team to develop voluntary best management practices (BMPs) to help control the spread of invasive species.

Partnership

Adirondack Park Invasive Plant Program.

See also: Best Management Practices for more resources

University of Georgia. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health.

This brochure highlights invasive plant, animal, insect and plant pathogen issues that landowners might encounter and provides guidelines for preventing their introduction and spread. 

International Union for Conservation of Nature.
The aim of this report was to identify the resources, strategies, and policies necessary to create, maintain, and make accessible one or more commodity/invasive species databases that EPA and other relevant agencies can apply to trade policy decision-making in a timely and scientifically-based manner.
New York Invasive Species Clearinghouse.
People have been working to control aquatic invasive species in New York State for decades. In 2003, the state government took a leadership effort to identify and coordinate local and regional efforts. The Watercraft Inspection Steward Programs are a statewide effort that has stewards stationed at boat launches across the state, including Lake Erie, Lake Ontario, the Finger Lakes, the Thousand Islands, the Adirondacks, Lake Champlain, Lake George, Saratoga Lake, the Hudson River and on Long Island.
Tahoe Resource Conservation District; Tahoe Regional Planning Agency; DOI. Fish and Wildlife Service.
Watercraft are the largest vectors for spreading aquatic invasive species (AIS), such as quagga and zebra mussels into new waterways, making boat inspections a vital aspect of protecting Lake Tahoe and other nearby water bodies.
Federal Government
U.S. Department of Agriculture.
This workbook contains basic information on programs in USDA that could be used to fund and support invasive species related projects. This list should be a helpful place to start a search for sources of technical and financial resources for invasive species activities but may not include all potential invasive species funding opportunities. USDA contacts for program support listed in the document are current at the time of publication. The contacts listed in the "other grant information" section can assist you in determining which opportunities may fit best with your needs.

USDA. Forest Service.

Non-native invasive species (NNIS) pose a threat to forest ecosystems and forest productivity. Managers can play important roles in slowing the spread of NNIS. This guide describes practices to aid in those roles. The goal is to provide practices that prevent the inadvertent spread of NNIS, reducing the impacts of NNIS. The best management practice (BMP) statements in this guide are intended to apply to forest stewardship activities. This guide is intended to help managers make the most efficient use of limited resources to combat NNIS.

DOI. Bureau of Reclamation. Policy and Program Services.
Technical Memorandum No. 86-68220-07-05. This manual provides recommendations for inspection and cleaning of vehicles and equipment as a prevention tool to limit the spread of invasive species. The manual will help equipment operators gain a better understanding of how invasive plants and animals are spread by contaminated equipment into new locations and has broad applications for many organizations and agencies.
DOI. NPS. Yellowstone National Park.
If you plan to use your own boat or angler float tube, you’ll need a permit and a free Yellowstone aquatic invasive species inspection. You can speed up the inspection process by arriving with a boat that is clean, drained, and dry. Watercraft that arrive dirty or with standing water will be subject to decontamination. Watercraft that cannot be properly decontaminated will be prohibited from launching.
DOI. NPS. Glacier National Park.
Glacier National Park waters are generally open for boating from mid-May through October. All watercraft require an NPS inspection and permit before launching. Prior cleaning, draining, and drying of all watercraft, both externally and internally, will reduce inspection time significantly.

Environmental Protection Agency.

In addition to intergovernmental efforts and research to detect and monitor aquatic nuisance species (ANS), the EPA addresses ANS using numerous regulatory tools.

The EPA's National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Vessel General Permit (VGP) and Small Vessel General Permit (sVGP) regulate discharges incidental to the normal operation of commercial vessels, including ballast water and hull fouling, which are both pathways for introductions of aquatic nuisance species. The EPA and the Department of Defense are jointly developing the Uniform National Discharge Standards for vessels of the Armed Forces which will also regulate ballast water and hull fouling to help control the introduction of aquatic nuisance species.

Note: On December 4, 2018, President Trump signed into law the Frank LoBiondo Coast Guard Authorization Act of 2018, which includes as Title IX the Vessel Incident Discharge Act of 2018 (“VIDA”). The new regulations will replace the EPA’s 2013 Vessel General Permit (“VGP”). EPA first issued the Vessel General Permit (VGP) in 2008 and subsequently reissued it in 2013.

DOI. NPS. Glen Canyon National Recreation Area.
It is crucial to keep the mussels from moving from Lake Powell to other lakes and rivers. Utah and Arizona state laws require you to clean, drain, and dry your boat when leaving Lake Powell using self-decontamination procedures. Additional steps are required if you launch on other waters without a significant drying period or if you are on Lake Powell for more than 5 days.

USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

This site can help you determine what items can be brought into the U.S. Bringing food and other items back from your travels could impact the health and safety of American agriculture and natural resources. For example, travelers cannot bring in most fresh fruits and vegetables because they can carry plant pests or diseases. Just one pest could devastate multiple agricultural industries.

DOI. NPS. Curecanti National Recreation Area.
Motorized and trailered watercraft launching in Blue Mesa Reservoir are required to be inspected for aquatic invasive species prior to launching, and if necessary, decontaminated in accordance with procedures set by the Colorado Division of Wildlife. In addition to the mandatory inspection prior to launch, boaters are encouraged to get an exit inspection to verify the watercraft has been cleaned, drained and dried.
State and Local Government

Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources.

Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources Secretary Cindy Adams Dunn announced that the department is launching an effort at nine state parks this summer to help prevent the spread of aquatic invasive species, and get boaters involved in invasive species detection. "Boats, motors, and trailers have ideal hiding spots where species may attach, and be transported to new locations," Dunn said. "Boaters must be involved in helping us protect state park waters from invaders, to benefit our environment and avoid very costly measures to treat lakes once these non-native species take hold." Starting this week, DCNR staff will be doing voluntary boat and trailer checks at boat launches on park lakes, handing out informational brochures and demonstrating how to do an inspection.

Montgomery County Department of Parks (Maryland). Park Planning and Stewardship Division.

Natural Resources Stewardship staff (NRS) has determined that many non-native invasive plants (NNIs) known to present a significant threat to the quality and biodiversity of the natural areas occur in this 37,000-acre park system. To support the park mission to steward these lands, Montgomery County Department of Parks has prepared fact sheets for park managers and maintenance personnel with easy-to-read information about mechanical and chemical control methods for several terrestrial NNIs.

Minnesota Department of Natural Resources.

These best management practices for water accesses have been developed by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources in an effort to reduce the spread of aquatic invasive species (AIS). By following these guidelines, providers of public and private boat access facilities can create visible and functional designated areas where boaters can clean and drain boating equipment and conduct other AIS prevention activities.

New Mexico Department of Game & Fish.

Wyoming Game and Fish Department.
Please check this information before you transport your watercraft into Wyoming as this information will be updated regularly. This site includes detailed information and a map of inspection facilities including locations, dates of operation, and hours of operation. Any watercraft transported into Wyoming from March 1 through November 30 must undergo a mandatory inspection by an authorized inspector prior to launching in any water of the state. See also: AIS Inspection Location List.

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

To minimize the spread of invasive species, interested stakeholders have met to develop voluntary Best Management Practices for Invasive Species. These guidelines will help Wisconsin residents and visitors to limit the likelihood of moving invasive species around.
Colorado Parks and Wildlife.
Motorboats and sailboats must have an ANS Stamp prior to launching in Colorado in 2019. Boat owners are required to purchase the ANS Stamp and operators must retain proof of purchase (electronic or printed receipt) on his or her person, the motorboat or sailboat, when operating the vessel (C.R.S. 33-10.5-104.5). ​Funding contributes to prevention and management of ANS in the state. Thank you for protecting our waters and contributing to conservation in Colorado!

New Hampshire Department of Transportation.

To address mounting concerns over invasive plants and the role NHDOT activities play in the spread of these plants along roadsides, Best Management Practices (BMPs) have been developed with input from Maintenance Districts, the Roadside Development Section, the Bureau of Construction, and the NH Department of Agriculture. Implementation of these BMPs will help prevent the spread of invasive plants caused by maintenance and construction activities.

California Department of Fish and Wildlife.

The goals of the California Invasive Species Action Week (CISAW) are to increase public awareness of invasive species issues and promote public participation in the fight against California's invasive species and their impacts on our natural resources.

Prevention is the most effective strategy in managing invasive species. However, hundreds of invasive plants and animals have already established in California and are rapidly spreading each year. These invaders are negatively impacting our waters, our native plants and animals (some of them rare, threatened, or endangered), our agriculture, our health, our economy, and our favorite recreational places. Help us celebrate California's Invasive Species Action Week, and more importantly, help stop the spread of invasive species, by volunteering to take action.

Learn how invasive species are affecting California, with Invasive Species Week Lunchtime Talks (June 7-11, 2021). Webinars are part of California Invasive Species Action Week, organized by the California Department of Fish & Wildlife. Webinars were recorded and available for viewing.

Lake George Park Commission.
From May 1st - Oct. 31st, all trailered boats being launched must be inspected at one of the 7 regional inspection stations.

Montana Fish, Wildlife, and Parks.

The Angler AIS Prevention Pass (AISPP) is required for all individuals who fish in Montana. This program was initiated by the 2017 Montana Legislature to help fund the fight against aquatic invasive species in Montana. Non-resident watercraft launching in Montana must purchase a Vessel AIS Prevention Pass (AISPP). Purchase the Vessel AISPP at FWP regional offices or through the Online Licenses Service.

King County Department of Natural Resources (Washington).

King County's Best Management Practices (BMP's) help landowners control weeds using a variety of options that consider characteristics of the site and keep negative side effects to a minimum. The Noxious Weed Control Program follows county guidelines of Integrated Pest Management (IPM). The goal is to maximize effective control and to minimize environmental, economic and social damage.

California Department of Parks and Recreation. Division of Boating and Waterways.

As part of its mission, the Division of Boating and Waterways manages the Quagga and Zebra Mussel Infestation Prevention Grant Program, which supports preventative plans that help protect California’s reservoirs from a dreissenid mussel infestation. California State Parks Division of Boating and Waterways (DBW) will accept applications for the 2021 Quagga and Zebra Mussel Infestation Prevention Grant Program: March 22, 2021 - April 30, 2021, subject to available funds.

Minimum Eligibility Requirements:
Grant applicant must own/manage any aspect of the water in a reservoir where recreational activities are permitted; Grant applicant must demonstrate that the reservoir is uninfested with dreissenid mussels; and the reservoir must be open to the public.

South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks.

The South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks partners with the South Dakota B.A.S.S. Federation and private car washes to provide a list of boat wash locations that have lit, pull-though bays for easy access. Hot water may not be available at these boat washes. If your vessel has been moored in containment waters for 3 or more days or if AIS are attached, your boat must be decontaminated with hot water.

Colorado Parks and Wildlife.

Minnesota Department of Natural Resources.
The Minnesota Watercraft Inspection Program was created in 1992, in response to legislation proposed by the DNR, Minnesota Lakes Associations, and angling groups. In 2011, legislation aimed at strengthening Minnesota's ability to prevent the spread of aquatic invasive species was signed into law.

Idaho State Department of Agriculture.

Idaho's inspection stations are placed on major highways at or near the Idaho state line. The purpose of these stations is to inspect watercraft coming from outside of Idaho. Inspectors will look for high-risk boats that have been in quagga mussel and zebra mussel impacted states. Boats will be inspected for any attached mussels and/or standing water and owners also will be asked where they have boated in the previous 30 days. It is important that boaters arrive in Idaho with a clean, drained and dry watercraft.

Montana Fish, Wildlife, and Parks.

ALL watercraft (motorized and nonmotorized) must stop at ALL watercraft inspection stations you encounter. Inspection stations are the first line of defense to stop the spread of aquatic invasive species.
See also: CleanDrainDryMT.com - Protect Montana Waters from Aquatic Invasive Species

California Department of Parks and Recreation. Division of Boating and Waterways.
This list is provided as a courtesy by the State of California. Additional waterbodies may be conducting watercraft inspections that are not included in this list. Before traveling, boaters are encouraged to contact the managing agency to obtain current information on inspections or restrictions.

Oregon Department of Fish & Wildlife.

Beginning Jan. 1, 2020, the Aquatic Invasive Species (AIS) Permit required for non-motorized boats 10 feet and longer will be replaced by a Waterway Access Permit. The AIS Permit will remain for out-of-state motorized boats and is included in Oregon boat registration fees.

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

Clean Boats, Clean Waters includes teams of volunteers, as well as some paid staff from the DNR, Sea Grant and other organizations. Boat inspectors help perform boat and trailer checks, disseminate informational brochures and educate boaters on how to prevent the spread of aquatic invasive species.

Academic
Professional

Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Foundation.

This third edition has been specifically designed with water resource managers, water management associations, homeowners and customers and operators of aquatic plant management companies and districts in mind. The goal in preparing this handbook is to provide basic, scientifically sound information to assist decision makers with their water management questions.

Environmental Law Institute.
A report by attorney Read D. Porter that examines coordination on aquatic invasive species (AIS) prevention among the Chesapeake Bay states. The report focuses on prevention-related legal authorities in Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania in particular, and recommends actions to improve regional cooperation both within the existing regulatory frameworks and through potential amendments to state laws and regulations to enhance prevention.
Environmental Law Institute.
Making a List: Prevention Strategies for Invasive Plants in the Great Lakes States surveys plant listing programs in Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin to assess the effectiveness of listing as a tool to prevent the proliferation and spreads of invasive plant species.