Holmes, Thomas P.; Aukema, Juliann E.; Von Holle, Betsy; Liebhold, Andrew; Sills, Erin. 2009. Economic impacts of invasive species in forest past, present, and future. In: The Year In Ecology and Conservation Biology, 2009. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1162:18-38.
USDA. FS. Northern Research Station.
USDA. National Agricultural Statistics Service.
In 2016 NASS began to collect data on honey bee health and pollination costs. Provides reliable, up-to-date statistics help track honey bee mortality.
USDA. Economic Research Service.
Note: Webarchive; provides economic background information
DOI. Fish and Wildlife Service.
The negative consequences of invasive species are far-reaching, costing the United States billions of dollars in damages every year. Compounding the problem is that these harmful invaders spread at astonishing rates. Such infestations of invasive plants and animals can negatively affect property values, agricultural productivity, public utility operations, native fisheries, tourism, outdoor recreation, and the overall health of an ecosystem.
USDA. APHIS. National Wildlife Research Center.
Managers often struggle to calculate the ecological and economic costs associated with invasive species. Yet, knowing these impacts can boost support and understanding for invasive species management. In a new book chapter (PDF | 343 KB), NWRC economist Dr. Stephanie Shwiff and colleagues describe how economists determine costs of both primary and secondary impacts from invasive species and how these translate into jobs and revenue in regional economies.