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Control and Management

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Spotlights

  • United States Department of Agriculture.
    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) announced today the first update since 2013 of the National Road Map for Integrated Pest Management (IPM) (PDF | 340 KB). Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a science-based, sustainable decision-making process that uses information on pest biology, environmental data, and technology to manage pest damage in a way that minimizes both economic costs and risks to people, property, and the environment.
  • Cornell University. Agriculture and Life Sciences.
    This guide provides photographs and descriptions of biological control (or biocontrol) agents of insect, disease, and weed pests in North America. It is also a tutorial on the concept and practice of biological control and integrated pest management (IPM). Whether you are an educator, a commercial grower, a student, a researcher, a land manager, or an extension or regulatory agent, we hope you will find this information useful.
  • Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Foundation.

    This third edition has been specifically designed with water resource managers, water management associations, homeowners and customers and operators of aquatic plant management companies and districts in mind. The goal in preparing this handbook is to provide basic, scientifically sound information to assist decision makers with their water management questions.

  • DHS. Customs and Border Protection.

    U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) agriculture specialists have already intercepted a dozen significant and potentially destructive pests this year at various ports of entry in Florida as part of the agency's all-encompassing efforts to safeguard American agriculture.

    Unknown pests pose a significant risk in agriculture due to a lack of knowledge in controlling the pests and the extent of damage they can cause to crops. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) entomologists recently classified eight pests discovered by CBP agriculture specialists in Florida as first-in-the-nation interceptions and another pest as a new species.

  • USDA. APHIS. Plant Protection and Quarantine.

    USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is charged with implementing Section 10007 of the 2014 Farm Bill (Jul 2015; 5.6 MB) to prevent the introduction or spread of plant pests and diseases that threaten U.S. agriculture and the environment. Under the Farm Bill, APHIS provides funding to strengthen the nation’s infrastructure for pest detection and surveillance, identification, and threat mitigation, while working to safeguard the nursery production system.


    Section 10007 authorizes permanent funding for the Plant Pest and Disease Management and Disaster Prevention Program (PPDMDP) and the National Clean Plant Network (NCPN), with $62.5 million in Commodity Credit Corporation funding allocated by Congress each year from FY 2014-FY2017 and $75 million per year in FY 2018 and beyond. At least $5 million must go to NCPN each year.
  • Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force.

    This database was designed to direct users to invasive species experts. The public portion of the database will guide you to a state contact who acts as a filter for information and identifications.

  • Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.
    There are two basic approaches to limiting the spread of invasive species: a species-by-species assessment of the risks or benefits of admitting or excluding species, and a policy based on controlling pathways of entry in which vigilance is maintained on incoming ballast tanks, cargo holds, packing materials, and similar vehicles for unwanted organisms. These two approaches may complement each other. Policymakers also may emphasize prevention over post hoc control or vice-versa, or they may adopt a combination of the two approaches. Congressional Research Service Report R44011.
  • Ohio State University. College of Food, Agricultural and Environmental Sciences.

    Ohio State University Extension has released a new app for spotting and tracking invasive species -- non-native organisms such as Asian carps, purple loosestrife and Asian longhorned beetle -- to try to keep them from setting up beachheads and hurting the economy and environment. By using the free Great Lakes Early Detection Network app, a person can take pictures of suspected invasive species -- whether of farm, forest or water -- and upload the pictures and locations for verification. Based on this early warning, scientists can send out alerts, map the spread and figure out a battle plan.

  • USDA. APHIS. Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey (CAPS). National Agricultural Pest Information System (NAPIS).
    Provides State pest detection contacts, recent state exotic pest news, links to state pest resources, and a list of state CAPS survey targets.
  • USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

    The Pest Detection program supports APHIS’ goal of safeguarding U.S. agricultural and environmental resources by ensuring that new introductions of harmful plant pests and diseases are detected as soon as possible, before they have a chance to cause significant damage. A strong domestic agricultural pest detection system is an essential element in providing a continuum of checks from offshore preclearance programs, domestic port inspections, and surveys in rural and urban sites across the United States.

  • Washington State Recreation and Conservation Office.

    To help combat the $1.3 billion threat invasive species pose to Washington's economy every year, the Washington Invasive Species Council is inviting the public to the frontlines of its work by detecting invasive species and reporting them on its newly improved WA Invasives app. The free app enables anyone to report a plant or animal by collecting photographs, geographic coordinates, and sighting information. Users recreating in the backcountry also can collect data offline, when cellular service isn't available. The app also acts as digital field guide.
  • United States Department of the Interior.
    In response to the harmful impacts invasive species have on the Nation’s natural and cultural resources, the Department of the Interior released an interdepartmental report, Safeguarding America’s Lands and Waters from Invasive Species: A National Framework for Early Detection and Rapid Response. The report proposes to stop their spread through early detection and rapid response (EDRR) actions—a coordinated set of actions to find and eradicate potential invasive species before they spread and cause harm. View the full press release: Interior Department Announces Framework to Safeguard the Nation's Lands and Waters from Invasive Species (Feb 18, 2016)
  • University of Georgia. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health.

    The Southeast Early Detection Network (SEEDN) app brings the power of Early Detection and Distribution Mapping System (EDDMapS) to your smartphone. Now you can submit invasive species observations directly with your smartphone from the field. These reports are uploaded to EDDMapS and e-mailed directly to local and state verifiers for review. SEEDN is more than just a smartphone app; it is an integrated invasive species reporting and outreach campaign for the Southeastern United States that includes the app and the EDDMapS website.

  • Time Magazine.

    The old saying "an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure" was ahead of its time when it comes to invasive species policy."

  • DOI. USGS. Wetland and Aquatic Research Center. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species.

    Recent hurricanes may have spread non-native freshwater plants and animals into new water bodies, where some of them can disrupt living communities or change the landscape. To help land managers find and manage these flood-borne newcomers, scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey have created four online maps, one for each hurricane. These “storm tracker” map sets, on which users can see the potential spread of any of 226 non-native aquatic plant and animal species during the 2017 hurricane season. For more information, see Flood and Storm Tracker (FaST) Maps.

  • eXtension.
    You can help with efforts to control invasive species by reporting occurrences of invasive species. The information provided can help you know what information to report and which method of reporting to choose.

Selected Resources

The section below contains selected highly relevant resources for this subject, organized by source. To view all related content for this subject, click on "View all resources for subject" in the top left of this page.

Council or Task Force

California Invasive Plant Council.

Minnesota Invasive Species Advisory Council.

One of the keys to a rapid response to invasive species is the early identification of new occurrences. Please help report occurrences of invasive species in Minnesota. To report suspicious pest species arriving on plants or articles from foreign countries or other states, please contact the MDA's Arrest the Pest. To report invasive aquatic plants or wild animals, please contact the DNR Invasive Species Program at: 651-259-5100 (metro) or 1-888-646-6367.

Oregon Invasive Species Council.

Think you've found an invader? Oregon needs your help. Early detection is critical to keep Oregon protected from new invasives. If we can detect new outbreaks early and act quickly to control them, we save Oregon's natural resources and prevent costly eradication efforts. By the time an invader is easily noticeable and begins to cause damage, it is often too late.

California Invasive Plant Council.
The goal of this report is to capture the current state of knowledge on the use of fire as a tool to manage invasive plants in wildlands. By providing a more thorough source of information on this topic, we hope this review facilitates improved decision making when considering the use of prescribed burning for the management of invasive plants.

Partnership

Nature Conservancy. iMapInvasives.

Includes a variety of published guides and internet resources (videos) for use in identifying invasive species that are found in the participating states, provinces, and regions of the iMapInvasives network. The iMapInvasives network is currently comprised of ten U.S. states and one Canadian province    (Arizona, Florida, Maine, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Saskatchewan, Vermont, Virginia, and West Virginia).

Mississippi River Basin Panel on Aquatic Nuisance Species.
Rapid response actions are often complex, costly, and controversial, and therefore advanced planning for rapid response prior to an introduction is crucial. The Mississippi River Basin Panel on AIS (MRBP) has developed this model rapid response plan and supplemental attachments to assist natural resources management agencies effectively plan and quickly implement rapid response actions. In addition to providing information on rapid response planning, the model plan includes a template that can be used by states in developing their own rapid response plans. See also: MRBP Documents for more resources.
Northeast Aquatic Nuisance Species Panel.
Contains a compilation of known control methods for selected aquatic and wetland nuisance species.
USDA. ARS. Integrated Weed Management Resource Center.

The Integrated Weed Management (IWM) Resource Center is a place to find helpful, trustworthy resources on using integrated weed management for herbicide resistant weeds. Provides a clearinghouse of reliable educational resources necessary to integrate new weed management practices successfully, from trusted sources throughout the U.S.
See also: Explore questions and answers

Academia.

Prepared by: The Ad Hoc Working Group on Invasive Species and Climate Change.
Prepared for: The Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force (ANSTF) and The National Invasive Species Council (NISC).
This report is the result of more than 2 years of hard work by federal and non-federal experts.

This report is targeted at a broad audience of people interested in invasive species, climate change and natural resource management. It is structured to first provide a brief overview of the connections between invasive species and climate change before looking specifically at how these communities approach conservation and natural resource management.

This document addresses the broader framework of invasive species management and climate change adaptation as tools to enhance and protect ecosystems and their natural resources in the face of these drivers of change. The review of tools and methods will be of interest to managers working at specific sites and to individuals making strategic decisions at larger geographic scales. Policy-makers and government agencies at the local, state and national levels may be interested in the issues related to institutional coordination and recommendations, while the scientific and research community may focus on the application of assessment tools. Finally, the public as a whole may benefit from the overall focus on how the drivers of climate change and invasive species intersect and the potential ramifications these will have on the natural world.

National Sea Grant Law Center.
Initiative of the Western Regional Panel on Aquatic Nuisance Species (WRP). The goal of the WRP initiative is to develop a multi-state vision for watercraft inspection and decontamination (WID) programs. The National Sea Grant Law Center is an active participant in this initiative, providing legal research support and leading efforts to develop model legislation and regulations for WID Programs.
See also: Invasive Mussels in the West: A Multi-state Collaboration (Oregon Sea Grant).
International Union for Conservation of Nature.
The aim of this report was to identify the resources, strategies, and policies necessary to create, maintain, and make accessible one or more commodity/invasive species databases that EPA and other relevant agencies can apply to trade policy decision-making in a timely and scientifically-based manner.

University of Georgia. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health.

Includes invasive species by category for insects, diseases, plants, and animals.
See also: Invasive Species Status Report by Congressional District

TexasInvasives.org.
The Invaders of Texas Program is an innovative campaign whereby volunteer "citizen scientists" are trained to detect the arrival and dispersal of invasive species in their own local areas. That information is delivered into a statewide mapping database and to those who can do something about it. The premise is simple. The more trained eyes watching for invasive species, the better our chances of lessening or avoiding damage to our native landscape.
ForWarn.
ForWarn is a satellite-based forest disturbance monitoring system for the conterminous United States. It delivers new forest change products every eight days and provides tools for attributing abnormalities to insects, disease, wildfire, storms, human development or unusual weather. Archived data provide disturbance tracking across all lands since 2000. See also: Press Release - USDA Forest Service and NASARelease Web-based Forest Disturbance Monitoring Tool (Mar 19, 2012)
GloBallast Partnerships Programme.
Building Partnerships to Assist Developing Countries to Reduce the Transfer of Harmful Aquatic Organisms in Ships’ Ballast Water, simply referred to as GloBallast Partnerships (GBP), was initiated in late 2007 and is intended to build on the progress made in the original project. This was initially planned as a five-year project, from October 2007 to October 2012, but was extended until June 2017.

University of Hawaii. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit. Hawaii Biodiversity Information Network.

The Hawaii Early Detection Network was created to increase public awareness of invasive species and engage communities in the monitoring of their own neighborhoods. Find out how you help protect the environment of Hawaii by participating in the Eyes and Ears Team and attending an educational workshop or downloading your own field guide. If you are reporting a snake call 911 or for an animal call 643-PEST immediately!

DOI. U.S. Geological Survey; Great Lakes Commission; DOC. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Great Lakes Fishery Commission.
Invasive zebra and quagga mussels alter ecosystem dynamics and affect industrial, municipal, and recreational water users. The negative impacts of these dreissenid mussels drove scientists to search for effective control methods beginning in the early 1990s. Since then, researchers have uncovered various control methods, each with their own advantages and disadvantages. Both chemical and physical treatments have been developed and used by state and federal agencies in the control of zebra mussels.
University of Connecticut. Connecticut Invasive Plant Working Group.
This guide is intended to assist with identification of invasive plants and provide information on controlling these problem plants. Included are both non-chemical means of control as well as information on proper use of herbicides where chemical controls are needed. The choice of control measure depends on the size and nature of the infestation. If dealt with early enough, invasive plant problems can often be eliminated by non-chemical methods. However, a herbicide-based approach may be required to control an infestation that has become well established or widespread.
University of Georgia. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health.

National Plant Diagnostic Network.

NPDN is a national network of diagnostic laboratories that rapidly and accurately detect and report pathogens that cause plant diseases of national interest, particularly those that could be deemed to be a biosecurity risk. The specific purpose of the NPDN is to provide a cohesive, distributed system to quickly detect and identify pests and pathogens of concern.

International Union for Conservation of Nature.

This report offers recommendations to improve biosecurity measures at U.S. ports, as well as a possible funding mechanism based upon the polluter-pays principle.

Discover Life.
Provides free on-line tools to identify species, teach and study nature's wonders, report findings, build maps, process images, and contribute to and learn from a growing, interactive encyclopedia of life with 851,136 species pages and 681,390 maps. See also: IDnature Guides

Portland State University (Oregon).

Pacific Biosecurity; Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme; Pacific Community.
National Information System for the Regional IPM Centers.
Provides various key contacts, coordinators and experts.
Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission. Aquatic Invasive Species Network.

Michigan State University. Midwest Invasive Species Information Network.

The invasive species education modules will help you become more comfortable with identifying these species in the field. Includes detailed information for terrestrial plants, aquatic plants, crustaceans, fish, insects, mollusks, and pathogens. Each module includes a short ten question quiz at the end to help you assess your newly acquired knowledge.

Whatisthisbug.org (California).

"What is This Bug" was developed from Farm Bill monies after the need for increased citizen help was recognized in the nationwide fight against invasive species. How can you help? Report a suspected pest. Now, with smartphones and the internet, new, easier and faster ways are available for reporting a suspicious pest, such as the Report a Pest Online Form and the Report a Pest Mobile App.

Federal Government

USDA. FS. Forest Health Protection.
The FHTET biological control program (FHTET-BC) is part of the broader Forest Service’s National Strategic Framework for Invasive Species Management as well as regional plans dealing with invasive species. The focus of the FHTET-BC is to demonstrate a strong leadership role in the development and implementation of biological control technologies to manage wide spread infestations of invasive species and to use biological control as a viable component for integrated invasive pest management efforts.
USDA. FS. Remote Sensing Applications Center.
Geospatial technologies such as remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) can reduce costs and increase the efficiency and effectiveness of weed management programs for certain weeds. This site provides information, technical guidance, and resources to help resource managers learn to use these technologies to predict weed invasion, map and monitor weeds, and educate the public about weeds.

USDA. Agricultural Research Service.

Along the Rio Grande in Texas, tiny insects are taking a big bite out of an invasive weed that competes for limited water resources vital to agriculture and native vegetation. Several years ago, ARS scientists released two insect species as part of a biocontrol program to kill giant reed (Arundo donax).

Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.
Congressional Research Service Report RL32344.
BugwoodWiki.
Published by: USDA. Forest Service. Publication FHTET-2002-04.
U.S. Government Printing Office. Federal Depository Library Program Electronic Collection Archive.
Compiled and Edited by: Gregory Ruiz and David Reid, NOAA Technical Memorandum GLERL-142.
See also: GLERL Technical Reports for more reports

USDA. FS. Invasive Species Program. 
 

 

Published by: USDA. FS. San Dimas Technology and Development Center; National Forest System Invasive Species Program, DOT, Federal Highway Administration; DOI, Fish and Wildlife Service. This video will help maintenance crews recognize and control noxious weeds along roadsides. Road crews that maintain any type road, from interstate highways to aggregate roads, are the frontline in preventing the spread of invasive plants. Note: The video links require Windows Media Player for .wmv files.

DOI. United States Geological Survey.
While invasive species prevention is the first line of defense, even the best prevention efforts will not stop all invasive species. Early Detection and Rapid Response (EDRR) is defined as a coordinated set of actions to find and eradicate potential invasive species in a specific location before they spread and cause harm. USGS activities that support EDRR span the geography of the country and address organisms and pathways most appropriate to address the needs of our partners. USGS provides scientific support to DOI Bureaus and other partners to aid in implementation of EDRR efforts and inform management actions.
DOI. United States Geological Survey.
U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2012–5162. The NPS I&M Program, in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Status and Trends Program, compiled this document to provide guidance and insight to parks and other natural areas engaged in developing early-detection monitoring protocols for invasive plants. While several rapid response frameworks exist, there is no consistent or comprehensive guidance informing the active detection of nonnative plants early in the invasion process. Early-detection was selected as a primary focus for invasive-species monitoring because, along with rapid response, it is a key strategy for successful management of invasive species.
USDA. National Agricultural Statistics Service.
In 2016 NASS began to collect data on honey bee health and pollination costs. Provides reliable, up-to-date statistics help track honey bee mortality.
DOI. Bureau of Reclamation. Policy and Program Services.
Technical Memorandum No. 86-68220-07-05. This manual provides recommendations for inspection and cleaning of vehicles and equipment as a prevention tool to limit the spread of invasive species. The manual will help equipment operators gain a better understanding of how invasive plants and animals are spread by contaminated equipment into new locations and has broad applications for many organizations and agencies.
USDA. FS. Rocky Mountain Research Station.
Rocky Mountain Research Station personnel have scientific expertise in widely ranging disciplines and conduct multidisciplinary research on invasive species issues with emphasis in terrestrial and aquatic habitats throughout the Interior West, Great Plains, and related areas.
USDA. Forest Service.
The Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) is a national program designed to determine the status, changes, and trends in indicators of forest condition on an annual basis. The FHM program uses data from ground plots and surveys, aerial surveys, and other biotic and abiotic data sources and develops analytical approaches to address forest health issues that affect the sustainability of forest ecosystems. See also: Forest Health Monitoring: A National Strategic Plan (Apr 2003; PDF | 204 KB)
USDA. ARS. Office of Pest Management.
These recovery plans are a cooperative effort of university, industry, and government scientists. The plans outline what the scientists know about the disease, indicate the current preparedness, suggest the best IPM approach, and recommend priority research and education needs.
DOI. USGS. Wetland and Aquatic Research Center.
Provides fact sheets, maps and collection information for aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates occurring outside of their native range.
U.S. Department of Agriculture.
This workbook contains basic information on programs in USDA that could be used to fund and support invasive species related projects. This list should be a helpful place to start a search for sources of technical and financial resources for invasive species activities but may not include all potential invasive species funding opportunities. USDA contacts for program support listed in the document are current at the time of publication. The contacts listed in the "other grant information" section can assist you in determining which opportunities may fit best with your needs.
DOI. USGS. National Wildlife Health Center.
WHISPers, a Wildlife Health Information Sharing Partnership event reporting system with current and historic information on wildlife morbidity or mortality events in North America. Events typically involve five or more sick or dead wild animals observed in the same general location and time period. This information is collected opportunistically and provided here by multiple State, Federal, and other agencies to enhance collective understanding of disease in wildlife populations.

International Government

Transport Canada.
European Environment Agency.
Invasive alien species (IAS) have become a major driver of biodiversity loss, second only to habitat fragmentation in recent decade. Europe is particularly affected by alien species, which are invading the continent an unprecedented pace. Their impact means that many of the region's rarest endemic species are on the brink of extinction and that our well-being and economies are affected. Establishing an early warning and rapid response framework for Europe become a key target. The present publication is the EEA contribution to achieving this goal.

State and Local Government

Alaska Department of Fish and Game.

Your vigilance could help us intercept and prevent the spread of an unwanted biological invader – an invasive species that shouldn’t be here and which could cause serious harm to Alaska’s native fish and wildlife species, and their habitats.

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.
California Department of Fish and Wildlife. Office of Spill Prevention and Response.

Oklahoma Department of Agriculture, Food, and Forestry. Consumer Protection Services.

If you suspect you have any of the invasive insects or disease on our list, take a picture and send it to us. Or, fill out the form and just let us know about it! Your personal information will be kept confidential, but we may need to contact you for further information.

Maryland Department of Natural Resources.

Do you hike, ride, bird, camp, fish, or otherwise recreate in state parks, forests or wildlands? Lend YOUR eyes to help Maryland's biodiversity! The Maryland Natural Heritage Program designed Statewide Eyes to allow volunteers and researchers alike to collect more information about invasive plants on state lands quickly. Volunteers (like you!) use a free mobile application called the Mid-Atlantic Early Detection Network (MAEDN) to identify, photograph and map the location of invasive plants, focusing on ecologically significant sites.

Academic

University of Minnesota. Minnesota Sea Grant.
AIS-HACCP is a self-inspection system for reducing the risk of spreading aquatic invasive species through aquaculture, hatchery, scientific, natural resource, and baitfish harvesting activities. This adaptable way to protect waterways from unwanted species was derived from HACCP methods required for the seafood industry and builds on Sea Grant’s success in assisting industry compliance.
University of Wisconsin. Extension Lakes Program. Citizen Lake Monitoring Network.
Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service.
See also: Weed Management Publications for more resources
Michigan State University. Integrated Pest Management Program.
Provides information about exotic plant pests with the highest potential to enter Michigan. These likely invaders are presented in fact sheets with descriptions of their biology and how to identify them. Risk maps forecast locations where invasives are likely to establish.
Montana State University. Center for Invasive Species Management.
See also: Surveying and Monitoring for more resources
University of Alaska Anchorage. Institute of Social and Economic Research.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Sea Grant. Center for Coastal Resources.
Oregon State University. Extension Service.
This handbook is intended as a ready reference guide to the control and management tactics for the more important plant diseases in the Pacific Northwest. The specific cultural, biological, and chemical recommendations are intended to manage a specific plant disease but may not always be appropriate under all production circumstances. The synthesis of a specific management recommendation should be done by a qualified individual. For this reason, this book should be used by—and has been expressly written for—county Extension agents, consultants, field and nursery people, and chemical industry representatives. Information in this publication is in a state of constant change.
University of Florida. IFAS. Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants.
Comprehensive site why and how aquatic plants are managed in Florida waters. These five sections (why manage plants; overview of Florida waters, control methods, developing management plans, and research and outreach) will guide you through the many factors considered by Fish and Wildlife Conservation commission (FWC) biologists when developing aquatic plant management plans for Florida waters. Our priority is to manage invasive plants while also conserving and enhancing our unique aquatic habitats and wildlife communities.

University of Nebraska - Lincoln. Nebraska Invasive Species Program.

Please complete this form to report a sighting of an invasive species. If you're not sure how to answer a question, do your best and we will contact you with any questions. If you have any questions for us, please feel free to contact us.

University of Idaho. Rangeland Ecology and Management.
Prepared by: American Sheep Industry Association

Professional

Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Foundation.
See also: AREF - Publications for more resources
National Academies. Transportation Research Board.
National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP Synthesis 363). This synthesis reviews federal, state, and regional approaches; prevention, early detection, and rapid responses; identification of aspects of operations and risks; statewide inventories; and information management. In particular, this report synthesizes the state of the practice in developing Integrated (Roadside) Vegetation Management, along with physical, chemical, biological, and cultural control mechanisms.
Environmental Law Institute.
A report by attorney Read D. Porter that examines coordination on aquatic invasive species (AIS) prevention among the Chesapeake Bay states. The report focuses on prevention-related legal authorities in Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania in particular, and recommends actions to improve regional cooperation both within the existing regulatory frameworks and through potential amendments to state laws and regulations to enhance prevention.
Environmental Law Institute.
Making a List: Prevention Strategies for Invasive Plants in the Great Lakes States surveys plant listing programs in Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin to assess the effectiveness of listing as a tool to prevent the proliferation and spreads of invasive plant species.

Weed Science Society of America.

Both scientists and regulators have had a lot to say about the growing problem of herbicide resistance and how weed management techniques need to change in response. But there have been few organized opportunities for farmers to make their voices heard and to share their experiences in managing herbicide-resistant weeds.

National Research Council. Committee on Ships' Ballast Operations.
North American Invasive Species Management Association.