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General Publications and Reports

Provides a list of selected reports, papers, and other online publications dealing with invasive species. See other sections for species specific information:


Federal Government

Publication Resources

Agricultural Quarantine Inspection Program: Improvements Needed to Minimize Threat of Foreign Pests and Diseases (May 5, 1997)
U.S. Government Accountability Office.

Agricultural Quarantine Inspection Program: Management Problems May Increase Vulnerability of U.S. Agriculture to Foreign Pests and Diseases (Oct 3, 2007)
U.S. Government Accountability Office.

Biosurveillance: Efforts to Develop a National Biosurveillance Capability Need a National Strategy and a Designated Leader (Jun 30, 2010)
U.S. Government Accountability Office.
The U.S. government has a history of employing health surveillance to help limit malady, loss of life, and economic impact of diseases. Recent legislation and presidential directives have called for a robust and integrated biosurveillance capability -- the ability to provide early detection and situational awareness of potentially catastrophic biological events. GAO reviewed federal biosurveillance programs, plans, and strategies and interviewed agency officials from components of 12 federal departments with biosurveillance responsibilities.

Climate Change Indicators in the United States
Environmental Protection Agency.
EPA partners with more than 40 data contributors from various government agencies, academic institutions, and other organizations to compile a key set of indicators related to the causes and effects of climate change. EPA has published a new printed edition of Climate Change Indicators in the United States every two years, starting in 2010 (see previous editions of the Indicators Report). The report indicates the timing of natural events, such as flower blooms and animal migration, is influenced by changes in climate. Scientists have very high confidence that recent warming trends in global climate are linked to an earlier arrival of spring events. An earlier spring might lead to longer growing seasons more abundant invasive species and pests and earlier and longer allergy seasons.

Commander's Guide on Invasive Species (Jan 2011; PDF | 2.2 MB)
DOD. Natural Resources Program.
This guide addresses the unique challenges of sustaining testing and training capabilities while simultaneously safeguarding the natural resources and habitats that DoD stewards.

Eco-Logical: An Ecosystem Approach to Developing Infrastructure Projects (March 2006)
DOT. Federal Highway Administration.
Eco-Logical was produced by an eight-agency steering team, including FHWA, the Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, NOAA National Marine Fisheries, the Bureau of Land Management, the National Park Service, and the U.S. Forest Service. The ecosystem approach contained in Eco-Logical shifts the Federal government's traditional focus on individual agency jurisdiction to the integrated actions of multiple agencies. It emphasizes increased voluntary contributions from all stakeholders, including the public, to a collaboratively developed vision of desired future conditions that incorporates ecological, economic, and social factors. It is applied within a geographic framework defined primarily by ecological rather than political boundaries. Eco-Logical will be an important tool for strengthening the link between transportation planning and NEPA.

Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture, Land Resources, Water Resources, and Biodiversity (May 27, 2008)
U.S. Climate Change Science Program.

Green Landscaping with Native Plants: Weedlaws
Environmental Protection Agency (web archive).
Published in : The John Marshall Law Review, Volume 26, Number 4 (Summer 1993)

Harmful Non-Indigenous Species in the United States (Sep 1993)
Princeton University. Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs.
Office of Technology Assessment Publication OTA-F-565. Print version available from National Technical Information Service (NTIS).

Homeland Security: Management and Coordination Problems Increase the Vulnerability of U.S. Agriculture to Foreign Pests and Disease (May 19, 2006)
U.S. Government Accountability Office.
Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-06-644.

Invasive Non-native Species: Background and Issues for Congress (Nov 25, 2002; PDF | 391 KB)
Penny Hill Press.
Congressional Research Service.
(Order Code RL30123, Corn, et al.)
See also: Earlier Version -- Harmful Non-native Species: Issues for Congress (Apr 8, 1999)

Invasive Forest Pests: Lessons Learned from Three Recent Infestations May Aid in Managing Future Efforts (Apr 21, 2006)
U.S. Government Accountability Office.
Report to the Chairman, Committee on Resources, House of Representatives. GAO-06-353.

Invasive Forest Pests: Recent Infestations and Continued Vulnerabilities at Ports of Entry Place U.S. Forests at Risk (Jun 21, 2006)
U.S. Government Accountability Office.
Testimony Before the Subcommittee on Forests and Forest Health, Committee on Resources, House of Representatives (Apr 21, 2006). GAO-06-871T.

Invasive Species: A Threat to the Homeland? (2003; PDF | 168 KB)
DOD. Defense Technical Information Center.
U.S. Army War College Strategy Research Project

Park Science Special Issue - Invasive Species (Fall 2004; PDF | 4.6 MB)
DOI. National Park Service.
Park Science
22(2). See also: Park Science Archive for more publications

Invasive Species: Clearer Focus and Greater Commitment Needed to Effectively Manage the Problem (Oct 22, 2002)
U.S. Government Accountability Office.
Report to Executive Agency Officials. GAO-03-1.

Invasive Species: Federal and Selected State Funding to Address Harmful, Nonnative Species (Aug 2000; PDF | 1.82 MB)
Government Accountability Office.
Report to Congressional Committees. GAO/RCED-00-219.

Invasive Species: Federal Efforts and State Perspectives on Challenges and National Leadership (Jun 17, 2003; PDF | 178 KB)
Government Accountability Office.
Statement of Barry T. Hill, Director. Testimony Before the Subcommittee on Fisheries, Wildlife, and Water, Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate. GAO-03-916T.

Invasive Species: Major Laws and the Role of Selected Federal Agencies (Oct 24, 2013; PDF | 625 KB)
National Agricultural Law Center.
Congressional Research Service. (R43258, Corn & Johnson)

Invasive Species: State and Other Non-Federal Perspectives on Challenges to Managing the Problem (Sep 5, 2003; PDF | 784 KB)
Government Accountability Office.

Invasive Species: Obstacles Hinder Federal Rapid Response to Growing Threat (Jul 2001; PDF | 1.47 MB)
Government Accountability Office.
Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-01-724.

Invasive Species Pathways Working Group: Focus Group Conference Report and Pathways Ranking Guide (June-August 2005) (Jul 2006; PDF | 1.08 MB)
Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force.
Published by: National Invasive Species Council, Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force, and NISC Prevention Committee Pathways Work Team

Invasive Species Pathways Working Group: Pathways Ranking Guide and Proceedings Report, Focus Group Conference (Jun 21-22, 2005) (Dec 2005; DOC | 3.33 MB)
USDA. NAL. National Invasive Species Information Center.
Published by: USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service; DOI; DOC.

Invasive Species Pathways Team Final Report (Oct 29, 2003; DOC | 315 KB)
USDA. NAL. National Invasive Species Information Center.
Published by: Invasive Species Advisory Committee. Pathways Task Team.

Invasive Species Stakeholders: Collecting, Sharing and Using Information, Proceedings of a Roundtable (Apr 26, 2000, published Jan 2001; PDF | 815 KB)
USDA. NAL. National Invasive Species Information Center.
Published by: U.S. Department of the Interior; U.S. Department of Agriculture; Charles Valentine Riley Memorial Foundation.

Invasive Species Survey: A Report on the Invasion of the National Wildlife Refuge System - A Technical Report for the National Wildlife Refuge System (May 2004)
See also: National Wildlife Refuge System

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National Invasive Species Management Plan
USDA. NAL. National Invasive Species Information Center.
Prepared by: National Invasive Species Council

National Ocean Policy Draft Implementation Plan (Jan 12, 2012)
The White House. President Barack Obama. National Ocean Council.
As part of President Obama's National Policy for the Stewardship of the Ocean, Our Coasts, and the Great Lakes, the National Ocean Council has released a draft National Ocean Policy Implementation Plan (PDF | 729 KB) to address some of the most pressing challenges facing the ocean, our coasts, and the Great Lakes. The draft Implementation Plan describes more than 50 actions the Federal Government will take to improve the health of the ocean, coasts, and Great Lakes. Our oceans, coasts, and Great Lakes are subject to substantial pressures and face significant environmental challenges, including those resulting from invasive species. Public comment period closed Feb 27, 2012.

Interagency Ocean Policy Task Force / Press Release -- Obama Administration Officials Announce the Final Recommendations of the Ocean Policy Task Force (Jul 19, 2010)
The White House. President Barack Obama.
The President signed an Executive Order and the Administration released the final recommendations (PDF | 3.6 MB) of the Interagency Ocean Policy Task Force which would establish a National Policy for the Stewardship of the Ocean, Coasts, and Great Lakes (National Policy) and create a National Ocean Council (NOC) to strengthen ocean governance and coordination. Our oceans, coasts, and Great Lakes are subject to substantial pressures and face significant environmental challenges, including those resulting from invasive species.

National Report on Sustainable Forests -- 2003 (Oct 2003)
USDA. Forest Service.
Report FS-766.

National Strategic Framework for Invasive Species Management (2013)
USDA. FS. Forest Health Protection.

Nonindigenous Species - An Emerging Issue for the EPA, Volume 1: Region/ORG Nonindigenous Species Workshop Report and Volume 2: A Landscape in Transition: Effects of Invasive Species on Ecosystems, Human Health, and EPA Goals (May 2001; PDF | 340 KB)
EPA. National Service Center for Environmental Publications (NSCEP).

Our Living Resources: A Report to the Nation on the Distribution, Abundance, and Health of U.S. Plants, Animals, and Ecosystems (1995)
Internet Archive.
Produced by DOI. USGS. National Biological Service.
Includes Non-Native Species section.

Position Paper: Invasive Species (Jan 2005; PDF | 38 KB)
USDA. Forest Service.

Safeguarding American Plant Resources (Jul 1999)
USDA. APHIS. Plant Protection and Quarantine.
A Stakeholder Review of the APHIS-PPQ Safeguarding System, conducted by the National Plant Board.
Also see: Special Reports (National Plant Board)

State of the Region: Non-Native Invasive Species (Aug 2003; DOC | 1.8 MB)
USDA. FS. Eastern Region. Non-Native Invasive Species Program.

Status and Trends of the Nation's Biological Resources - Volumes 1 & 2 (1998)
DOI. USGS. National Wetlands Research Center.
See also: Part 1 - Factors Affection Biological Resources: Nonindigenous species (PDF | 895 KB).

Survey of Non-Native Species Databases (Apr 2006; PDF | 310 KB)
DOI. USGS. National Institute of Invasive Species Science.
Published by: Colorado State University. Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory and Heinz Center.

Water, Climate Change, and Forests: Watershed Stewardship for a Changing Climate (2010; PDF | 9.6 MB)
USDA. FS. Pacific Northwest Research Station.
Report covers the role of forests in the stewardship of water in a changing climate. The publication describes healthy, resilient watersheds as a primary strategy for sustaining ecosystems and the clean, abundant water they provide, and discusses threats, including water pollution, invasive species and increased urban and rural development.

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State Government

Publication Resources

Florida's Wildlife: On the front line of climate change (2009; PDF | 1.6 MB) and Press Release: FWC Announces Publication of Climate Change Summit Report (Jun 17, 2009)
Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission.
The report summarizes information from presentations and discussions in the workshops conducted during the "Florida's Wildlife: On the front line of climate change" summit in Oct 2008. This includes a workshop on "Invasive organisms on biodiversity in future climates". It also identifies some of the concerns that emerged after three days of discussions about potential impacts of climate change for Florida's fish and wildlife resources. See Wildlife and Climate Changefor more information.

The Status of Nonindigenous Species in the South Florida Environment - 2008 South Florida Environmental Report (Mar 2008; PDF | 5.7 MB)
Florida Department of Environmental Protection and South Florida Water Management District.

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Publication Resources

Biodiversity and Conservation: A Hypertext Book - Chapter 9: Exotic Introductions
University of California - Irvine. School of Biological Sciences. Peter J. Bryant.

Bio-invasions: Breaching Natural Barriers (1998; PDF | 293 KB)
Washington Sea Grant Program.

EDIS - Glossary of Expressions in Biological Control
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Extension.
Electronic Data Information Source Publication #IPM-143

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Publication Resources

100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species: A Selection from the Global Invasive Species Database (Updated Nov 2004)
IUCN. Library System.
See also: 100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species (online updated version)

Africa Invaded: The Growing Danger of Invasive Alien Species - Part 1 (2004; PDF | 14.2 MB)
Global Invasive Species Programme.

Assessment to support continued development of the EU Strategy to combat invasive alien species (2010; PDF | 2.5 MB)
Institute for European Environmental Policy.
This study, prepared by the Institute for European Environmental Policy, analyses the policy baseline, and outlines priorities and components for an European IAS Strategy. It includes a preliminary and indicative estimate of the level of costs associated with the proposed measures.

Denying Entry: Opportunities to Build Capacity to Prevent the Introduction of Invasive Species and Improve Biosecurity at US Ports (2007)
International Union for Conservation of Nature.
The aim of this report was to identify the resources, strategies, and policies necessary to create, maintain, and make accessible one or more commodity/invasive species databases that EPA and other relevant agencies can apply to trade policy decision-making in a timely and scientifically-based manner.

Global Biodiversity Outlook 2 (2006; PDF | 8.5 MB)
Convention on Biological Diversity.

Global Indicators of Biological Invasion: Species Numbers, Biodiversity Impact and Policy Responses (Jan 2010) - Abstract / Press Release - Impact of Nature's Invading Aliens Measured for First Time (Jan 22, 2010)
International Union for Conservation of Nature.
Invasive alien species, ranging from disease and plants, to rats and goats, are one of the top three threats to life on this planet, according to a new publication coordinated by the Global Invasive Species Programme, of which IUCN is a partner. The authors looked at 57 countries and found that, on average, there are 50 non-indigenous species per country which have a negative impact on biodiversity.

Global Strategy 2008-2010 (PDF | 675 KB)
International Plant Protection Convention.
Produced by: Global Invasive Species Programme

Global Strategy on Invasive Alien Species (2001; PDF | 5.11 MB)
Global Invasive Species Programme.

Globalization Burdens Future Generations with Biological Invasions (Dec 20, 2010)
Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research.
A new study on biological invasions based on extensive data of alien species from 10 taxonomic groups and 28 European countries has shown that patterns of established alien species richness are more related to historical levels of socio-economic drivers than to contemporary ones. An international group of 16 researchers reported the new findings in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) article Socioeconomic legacy yields an invasion debt. The researchers found that the frequent delay between the first introduction of a species in a new territory and its establishment and spread suggest that invasions triggered by current economic behavior will possibly take a long time to become fully realized, causing an "invasion debt". The publication resulted from the three-year project DAISIE (Delivering Alien Invasive Inventory for Europe, funded by European Union within its 6th Framework Programme.

Guidelines on Biofuels and Invasive Species (2009)
International Union for Conservation of Nature.
IUCN hosted a 2nd workshop in Nairobi, Kenya to test the draft guidelines on biofuels and invasive species.

Invasive Alien Species: A Threat to Biodiversity (2009; PDF | 2.3 MB)
Convention on Biological Diversity.
International Day for Biological Diversity 2009 Booklet

Invasive Alien Species - A Toolkit of Best Prevention and Management Practices (Sep 2001)
CAB International.

Invasive Species and Poverty: Exploring the Links (Sep 2006; PDF | 2.23 MB)
Global Invasive Species Programme.

Invasive Species, Climate Change and Ecosystem-Based Adaptation: Addressing Multiple Drivers of Global Change (Sep 2010)
IUCN. Species Survival Commission. Invasive Species Specialist Group.
Published by: Global Invasive Species Programme
Separately, climate change and invasive species are two of the greatest threats to biodiversity and the ecosystem services upon which humanity relies. Combined their impacts will be compounded, potentially resulting in negative feedback loops with increasingly dire consequences. This publication from GISP highlights recent efforts to identify the underlying dynamics linking these two global change drivers and the optimal responses for the policy-making and research communities.

Invasive Species Management - What Taxonomic Support is Needed? (2008; PDF | 1.14 MB)
Global Invasive Species Programme.

Invasive Species Threats in the Caribbean Region: Report to the Nature Conservancy (2003; PDF | 461 KB)
IUCN. Species Survival Commission. Invasive Species Specialist Group.
Prepared by: CAB International.

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Management Guidelines for Invasive Alien Species in Canada's National Parks
Ecospheric Ethics.
Prepared for: Parks Canada. National Parks Branch.

Neighborhood Watch: Early Detection and Rapid Response to Biological Invasion along US Trade Pathways (2009) / See Press Release - Protect Your Ports Against Invasive Species (Sep 1, 2009)
International Union for Conservation of Nature.
This report offers recommendations to improve biosecurity measures at U.S. ports, as well as a possible funding mechanism based upon the polluter-pays principle.

Non-native Marine Species in British Waters
Joint Nature Conservation Committee (United Kingdom).

Pets, Aquarium, and Terrarium Species: Best Practices for Addressing Risks to Biodiversity (2010; PDF | 874 KB)
Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity.
CBD Technical Series No. 48
This report is largely based on the 2008 Expert Workshop on Preventing Biological Invasions: Best Practices in Pre-Import Risk Screening for Species of Live Animals in International Trade (University of Notre Dame, Indiana, Apr 9-11, 2008), summarized in the report Best Practices in Pre-Import Risk Screening for Species of Live Animals in International Trade (2009; PDF | 2.01 MB), but contains additional information beyond what was covered in the workshop.

Prepare for Invasion: Natural England Publishes New Forecast on the Non-Native Animals Threatening to Take Hold (May 22, 2009)
Natural England.
To mark International Biodiversity Day 2009, Natural England published a major report (Horizon Scanning for New Invasive Non-Native Animal Species in England) identifying the potential for a number of non-native animal species to increase in number in England and become invasive. Non-native species pose one of the biggest threats to England's natural biodiversity and ecosystems. Of 161 species evaluated, 84 were categorised as medium to high risk in terms of the likelihood of their becoming invasive and the disruption they could have on our natural environment and native wildlife.

The Ecological and Socio-economic Impact of Invasive Alien Species on Inland Water Ecosystems (PDF | 252 KB)
Convention on Biological Diversity.

Pilot Assessments: The Ecological and Socio-economic Impact of Invasive Alien Species on Inland Ecosystems (Nov 3, 2003; PDF | 245 KB)

The Economic Cost of Invasive Non-Native Species to the British Economy (PDF | 1.4 MB) / Press Release - Cost of Invasive Non-native Species – Early Eradication Lessens Impact (Dec 15, 2010)
Great Britain Non-native Species Secretariat; Scottish Government.
The financial cost of non-native species has been published in a new report. "The Economic Cost of Invasive Non-Native Species (INNS) to the British Economy" suggests that invasive species cost 1.7 billion pounds every year. The research was conducted by the international scientific organization CABI for the Scottish Government, Defra and the Welsh Assembly Government and breaks down the effect on each country. It indicates that the economic cost of INNS can be wide ranging and can result in the loss of crops, ecosystems and livelihoods. The cost to the agriculture and horticulture sector alone is estimated to be 1 billion pounds across Britain. See Great Britain Non-native Species Secretariat - Reports for the full report and supporting document.

The Great Reshuffling: How Alien Species Help Feed the Global Economy (2001; PDF | 7.7 MB)
The World Conservation Union (IUCN).
Editor: Jeffrey A. McNeely, Chief Scientist

PestSmart Connect - The threat posed by pest animals to biodiversity in New South Wales (2007)
Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre (Australia).
This report attempts to quantify the impact of invasive animals on biodiversity and shows that they are a major cause of biodiversity decline in New South Wales, Australia. It illustrates the problem's scale in terms of the number and range of native species at risk. This report provides a long-overdue baseline on invasive animals that can be used to make informed management and policy decisions into the future.

Towards An Early Warning and Information System for Invasive Alien Species (IAS) Threatening Biodiversity in Europe (Jun 1, 2010)
European Environment Agency.
This report is an abridged version of the full report which was based on a literature analysis, an in-depth assessment of the European situation, a review of the early warning and rapid response frameworks in other regions of the world, and replies to a questionnaire circulated to representatives and experts from 38 European countries.

Trade and Invasive Species in the Caribbean: A Universe of Risk (Jul 2009)
International Union for Conservation of Nature.
This report reviews the potential risk of introductions of invasive species through trade related pathways in the insular Caribbean, with a particular emphasis on larger islands and on the potential impacts of trade-related introductions of invasives on forests.

Turning Back The Tide: The Invasive Species Challenge (Dec 8, 2004)
Parliament of Australia.
Report on the regulation, control and management of invasive species and the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Amendment (Invasive Species) Bill 2002

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Publication Resources

Chapter 10: Alien Invaders (Sep 2004)
In: Essays on Wildlife Conservation, Peter B. Moyle and Steve Ellsworth.

America's Least Wanted: Alien Species Invasions of U.S. Ecosystems (1996; PDF | 1.49 MB)

An Action Plan on Invasive Species, for President Obama and the 112th Congress (Jan 2011; PDF | 3.9 MB)
National Environmental Coalition on Invasive Species.
This report published by the National Environmental Coalition on Invasive Species (NECIS) outlines three areas in which the Obama administration and 112th Congress can take action to stop invasive species in the U.S. NECIS groups outline the policy changes needed to curb invasive species introduction and spread, with a focus on screening intentional imports, preventing inadvertent introductions, and addressing funding gaps.

An Ounce of Prevention: How to Stop Invasive Insects and Diseases from Devastating U.S. Forests (Feb 2007; 556 KB)
Nature Conservancy. Global Forest Partnership, Forest Health Program.

(ESA Report) Biological Invasions: Recommendations for U.S. Policy and Management (2006)
Ecological Society of America.
Ecological Applications, 16(6), 2006, pp. 2035–2054.

Biological Invasions: Recommendations for U.S. Policy and Management - Position Paper (Mar 2, 2006; PDF | 362 KB)
Ecological Society of America.

Bioinvaders of the Sonoran Desert (Winter 2002; PDF | 2 MB)
University of Arizona. Ecology & Evolutionary Biology.

Bioinvasions: Stemming the Tide of Exotic Species (1998; PDF | 481 KB)
Juanita College.
Note: Archived publication; originally written for World Resources 1998-99, updated for EarthTrends Jul 2001

Confronting Climate Change in the Great Lakes Region: Impacts on Our Communities and Ecosystems (2003)
Union of Concerned Scientists.

Hidden in Plain Sight: The Role of Plants in State Wildlife Action Plans (2008)

Invasive Species - An Ongoing Series
Environment and Energy Publishing. Land Letter: The Natural Resources Weekly Report.

Integrated Pest Management: Current and Future Strategies - Interpretive Summary (Jun 2003)
Council for Agricultural Science and Technology.
(requires subscription or fee for full report)

Invasive Insects, Pathogens and Plants in Western and Pacific Island Forests - Final Report (Jul 2002; PDF | 2.13 MB)
Western Forestry Leadership Coalition.
Prepared by: INTECS International Inc. William M. Ciesla.

Invasive Pest Species: Impacts on Agricultural Production, Natural Resources, and the Environment (Mar 2002)
Council for Agricultural Science and Technology.
Issue Paper Number 20.

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National Ecological Observatory Network project (NEON) - Addressing the Nation's Environmental Challenges (2003)
National Academy of Sciences. National Academies Press and National Ecological Observatory Network.

Paying for Protection from Invasive Species (Fall 2002)
Issues in Science and Technology.
International Center for Technology Assessment. Peter T. Jenkins.

Predicting Invasions of Nonindigenous Plants and Plant Pests (2002)
National Academy of Sciences. National Academies Press.

Rationale, Blueprint, and Expectations for the National Ecological Observatory Network (Mar 25, 2003; PDF | 437 KB)
American Institute of Biological Sciences. Infrastructure for Biology at Regional to Continental Scales Working Group.

The North American Mosaic: A State of the Environment Report (Jan 7, 2002; PDF | 8.06 MB)
Commission for Environmental Cooperation.

The Science of Invasive Species (Nov 2001; PDF | 102 KB)
Union of Concerned Scientists.

Valuing Ecosystem Services: Toward Better Environmental Decision-Making (2004)
National Academy of Sciences. National Academies Press.
Committee on Assessing and Valuing the the Services of Aquatic and Related Terrestrial Ecosystems.

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