Encyclopedia of New Zealand.
USDA. APHIS. Wildlife Services.
North Carolina Native Plant Society.
Invasive Species Centre. Asian Carp Canada.
USDA. Economic Research Service.
Note: Webarchive; provides economic background information
Montana Fish, Wildlife, and Parks.
HathiTrust Digital Library.
Thompson, D. Q. (1987). Spread, impact, and control of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) in North American wetlands. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service.
Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force. Stop Aquatic Hitchhikers.
Aquatic invasive species pose an ongoing threat to the environment, economy, recreation, and human health and safely. These species are a direct driver of biodiversity loss, yet also hinder economic development, serve as vectors of disease, decrease the aesthetic value of nature, and prevent recreational activities. Keep reading to learn more about these specific threats.
California Invasive Plant Council.
DOI. Fish and Wildlife Service.
The negative consequences of invasive species are far-reaching, costing the United States billions of dollars in damages every year. Compounding the problem is that these harmful invaders spread at astonishing rates. Such infestations of invasive plants and animals can negatively affect property values, agricultural productivity, public utility operations, native fisheries, tourism, outdoor recreation, and the overall health of an ecosystem.
Great Britain Non-native Species Secretariat; Scottish Government.
The financial cost of non-native species has been published in a new report. "The Economic Cost of Invasive Non-Native Species (INNS) to the British Economy" suggests that invasive species cost 1.7 billion pounds every year. The research was conducted by the international scientific organization CABI for the Scottish Government, Defra and the Welsh Assembly Government and breaks down the effect on each country. It indicates that the economic cost of INNS can be wide ranging and can result in the loss of crops, ecosystems and livelihoods. The cost to the agriculture and horticulture sector alone is estimated to be 1 billion pounds across Britain. See Great Britain Non-native Species Secretariat - Reports for the full report and supporting document.
Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (South Africa); Global Invasive Species Programme.
See also: GISP Publications and Reports for more resources
International Union for the Conservation of Nature.
European Environment Agency.
The purpose of this report is to raise awareness among key stakeholders, decision-makers, policymakers and the general public about the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of IAS. Twenty-eight dedicated species accounts are provided to highlight the various types of impacts. These species accounts are based on thorough, up-to-date scientific information from recent research and studies, and highlight the multifaceted impacts of IAS at both the global and regional levels.
City of Portland (Oregon). Environmental Services.
USDA. APHIS. National Wildlife Research Center.
Managers often struggle to calculate the ecological and economic costs associated with invasive species. Yet, knowing these impacts can boost support and understanding for invasive species management. In a new book chapter (PDF | 343 KB), NWRC economist Dr. Stephanie Shwiff and colleagues describe how economists determine costs of both primary and secondary impacts from invasive species and how these translate into jobs and revenue in regional economies.
DOI. National Park Service.