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Home / Invasive Species Resources

Invasive Species Resources

Provides access to all site resources (alphabetically), with the option to search by species common and scientific names. Resources can be filtered by Subject, Resource Type, Location, or Source.

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International Maritime Organization.

Amendments to an international treaty aimed at preventing the spread of potentially invasive species in ships' ballast water entered into force on 13 October 2019. The International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments, 2004 (the BWM Convention) was adopted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO), a specialized agency of the United Nations, to address this problem. The BWM Convention entered into force in 2017. The amendments formalise an implementation schedule to ensure ships manage their ballast water to meet a specified standard ("D-2 standard") aimed at ensuring that viable organisms are not released into new sea areas, and make mandatory the Code for Approval of Ballast Water Management Systems, which sets out how ballast water management systems used to achieve the D-2 standard have to be assessed and approved. This will help ensure that aquatic organisms and pathogens are removed or rendered harmless before the ballast water is released into a new location – and avoid the spread of invasive species as well as potentially harmful pathogens.

USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

The United States Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has analyzed the potential environmental effects of establishing an integrated management strategy to control cogongrass in Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, and South Carolina. The draft environmental assessment is now available for comment. Cogongrass is an invasive exotic grass found on public and private property, along roadways, in forests, and on farmland. This federally regulated noxious weed grows rapidly, reducing forest productivity, harming wildlife habitat and ecosystems, and encroaching on pastures and hayfields. Because of cogongrass' impact on agriculture and forest industries, Congress has given APHIS funding to partner with Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, and South Carolina to control the spread of this weed. APHIS is proposing is an integrated management strategy that uses preventive, cultural, mechanical, biological, and chemical methods to control cogongrass in key areas of its distribution. APHIS invites the public to review and comment on this environmental assessment by April 1, 2020.

USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

Effective immediately, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is expanding the Phytophthora ramorum (P. ramorum) quarantine area in Del Norte County, California. APHIS is taking this action in response to the confirmation of P. ramorum in the county on September 19, 2020. The California Department of Food and Agriculture has established an intrastate quarantine for the areas in Del Norte County that mirrors the federal regulatory requirements as specified in 7 CFR 301.92.

P. ramorum is the pathogen that causes sudden oak death, ramorum leaf blight, or ramorum dieback. Sudden oak death was first reported in 1995 on tan oak in Mill Valley, Marin County, California. Through ongoing surveys, APHIS continues to define the extent of the pathogen's distribution in the United States and uses quarantine areas and public outreach to limit its artificial spread beyond infected areas. Details on APHIS-designated P. ramorum quarantine and regulated areas and the conditions to move regulated articles are in 7 CFR 301.92 and at the APHIS website.

USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

Effective September 30, 2021, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) established an Oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis or OFF) quarantine in the San Jose area of Santa Clara County, California. This action is in response to the confirmed detections of six adult male OFF from the San Jose area by CDFA between September 13 and September 24, all from traps in various types of fruit trees in residential areas. By October 4, CDFA confirmed the seventh male OFF in the vicinity of the earlier finds, which expanded the quarantine further. The establishment of this quarantine area is reflected on the APHIS website, which contains a description of all current Federal fruit fly quarantine areas.

USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

Effective immediately, the USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), in cooperation with the Alabama Department of Agriculture and Industries (ADAI), is establishing quarantines for Huanglongbing (HLB; citrus greening), caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, in all of Baldwin and Mobile Counties in Alabama. APHIS is taking this action because of HLB detections in plant tissue samples collected in multiple locations in Alabama.

APHIS is applying safeguarding measures on the interstate movement of regulated articles from the quarantined counties in Alabama. These measures parallel the intrastate quarantine that ADAI established on June 2, 2020. This action is necessary to prevent the spread of HLB to non-infested areas of the United States.

USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

Effective May 11, 2021, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and the New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets (NYS AGM) expanded the European cherry fruit fly (ECFF) quarantine to include all of Monroe County and Wayne County and a small portion of northwestern Ontario County, New York. With this expansion, the ECFF quarantine now includes all of Erie, Monroe, Niagara, Orleans, and Wayne Counties. This action is necessary to prevent the spread of ECFF to non-infested areas of the United States, while maintaining commercial cherry production and marketing within the state. The APHIS website reflects the expansion of this quarantine and contains a description of all the current federal fruit fly quarantine areas.

USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

Effective December 17, 2021, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is removing the light brown apple moth (LBAM), Epiphyas postvittana, quarantine in California and Hawaii. APHIS is reclassifying LBAM as a non-quarantine pest, removing all areas under quarantine, and removing movement restrictions on LBAM host material.

When APHIS first confirmed detections of LBAM in the United States in 2007, the best science available indicated that this moth would be a pest of economic significance. In response, APHIS and the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) developed an eradication program. Over time, however, it became clear that the moth’s impact was not as significant as expected.

USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

Effective immediately, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is removing 45,562.067 acres from the golden nematode (GN) regulated area in Suffolk County, New York and refining the global positioning system (GPS) points for the descriptions of the regulated area in the town of Oyster Bay in Nassau County, New York. APHIS is removing these areas based on survey results and other criteria in the "Canada and United States Guidelines on Surveillance and Phytosanitary Actions for the Potato Cyst Nematodes, Globodera rostochiensis and Globodera pallida”.

Since 2010, APHIS, working closely with the New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets (NYS AGM), has removed 1,186,693.79 acres from the GN-regulated area in New York. APHIS and NYS AGM have an active control and mitigation program in place to prevent GN from spreading from the remaining 101,955.27 acres, including 5,945 GN-infested acres in eight New York counties. The specific GN-regulated areas are on the APHIS website.

UNFAO. Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

An insect that can infest and damage hundreds of hectares of maize fields, literally overnight, is sweeping across Asia – alarming smallholder farmers and threatening livelihoods – but the damage can be limited, the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) reported today. Fall Armyworm is native to the Americas. However, since 2016 it has been aggressively moving ever eastwards, sweeping across Africa, and making landfall for the first time in Asia last summer. Fall Armyworm (FAW) was first detected in India in July 2018 and by January of this year, it had spread to Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand and China’s Yunnan Province.

Invasive Carp Regional Coordinating Committee.

The Asian Carp Regional Coordinating Committee announced the release of its 2021 Asian Carp Action Plan, a comprehensive portfolio of projects focused on Great Lakes protection.

Washington State Department of Agriculture.

The Asian Giant Hornet Public Dashboard shares detection and trapping data. Citizen scientists were able to view detections in real time, including the number of reported sightings and number of hornets confirmed by type. Coordinating this information provided input on future trapping and demonstrated the benefit of collaboration with citizen scientists. WSDA has indicated that citizen data sharing and bottle trapping efforts are crucial to protect Washington from this invasive species.

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (Australia).

A new report, Fighting Plagues and Predators: Australia’s Path to a Pest and Weed-Free Future (PDF | 12 MB), reveals the environment is facing a "sliding doors" moment, with two possible futures for Australia, depending on the decisions made today. It highlights a looming wave of new extinctions and outlines two futures for Australia, one based on an unsustainable ‘business as usual’ approach and the other based on implementing targeted actions that will help save our unique biodiversity. The report pegs the conservative cost of damage caused by invasive species in Australia – predominantly weeds, feral cats, rabbits and fire ants – at $390 billion over the past six decades and around $25 billion each year and growing.

National Environmental Science Programme (Australia). Threatened Species Recovery Hub.

New research by the Threatened Species Recovery Hub has shown that invasive or pest species are a problem for 1,257 threatened species in Australia, or about four out of five species. The research which has been published in the scientific journal Pacific Conservation Biology also identified the top ten invasive species based on how many threatened species they impact. Lead researcher Stephen Kearney from the University of Queensland said many people may be surprised at which species top the list. “Rabbits, a plant root disease and feral pigs are the top three pest species impacting Australia’s threatened species,” Mr Kearney said.

Wildlife Forever.

Scroll down for 25 Most Harmful Nonindigenous Aquatic Species in the West

DOI. Bureau of Land Management.

The Bureau of Land Management has released the final programmatic environmental impact statement for fuels reduction and rangeland restoration in the Great Basin. This programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) is intended to further efforts to conserve and restore sagebrush communities within a 223 million-acre area that includes portions of Idaho, Oregon, Washington, California, Nevada and Utah.

Sagebrush communities in the Great Basin are a vital part of Western working landscapes and are home to over 350 species of plants and wildlife. Intact sagebrush communities are disappearing within the Great Basin due to increased large and severe wildfires, the spread of invasive annual grasses, and the encroachment of pinyon-juniper. The Great Basin region is losing sagebrush communities faster than they can reestablish naturally. Fuels reduction and rangeland restoration treatments can reduce fire severity, increase sagebrush communities' resistance to invasive annual grasses and improve their ability to recover after wildfires.

CAB International.

CABI has highlighted the top 20 crop pests and diseases for possible prioritization in the Eastern Caribbean as part of a special presentation given to the Caribbean Plant Health Directors Forum (CPHD) aimed at strengthening food security in the region and further afield. Dr Yelitza Colmenarez, CABI’s Centre Director, Brazil, told the conference of CPHD – with the participation of key partners including the FAO, IICA, OIRSA, USDA-APHIS, CIRAD, CARDI, CAHFSA and CABI Member Countries from the Caribbean – that the introduction of new pest and pathogen species are a serious threat to food security within the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) and globally. With the help of a range of CABI tools and platforms, including the Crop Protection Compendium, Invasive Species Compendium, Horizon Scanning Tool and Pest Risk Analysis Tool, Dr. Colmenarez says 20 key insects, bacteria, fungus and viruses pose a particular threat that needs to be identified, monitored and mitigated.

California Department of Food and Agriculture.

A state exterior quarantine has been declared to prohibit the introduction of the spotted lanternfly (SLF), Lycorma delicatula, into California. Spotted lanternfly was first detected in North American in 2014 in Pennsylvania and has now spread to nine states. The quarantine prohibits the entry into California of SLF, its host plants, and a variety of articles, including conveyances, originating from any area where an SLF infestation exists.

If you believe you have seen the spotted lanternfly, please contact CDFA's Invasive Species Hotline at 1-800-491-1899, via Report a Pest, or by contacting your local County Agricultural Commissioner.

California Invasive Plant Council.

This white paper describes the strategic advantages of an EDRR approach, puts the need for such an approach in context, and provides a suite of recommendations for action at the statewide level for California.

California Department of Fish and Wildlife.

The goals of the California Invasive Species Action Week (CISAW) are to increase public awareness of invasive species issues and promote public participation in the fight against California's invasive species and their impacts on our natural resources.

Prevention is the most effective strategy in managing invasive species. However, hundreds of invasive plants and animals have already established in California and are rapidly spreading each year. These invaders are negatively impacting our waters, our native plants and animals (some of them rare, threatened, or endangered), our agriculture, our health, our economy, and our favorite recreational places. Help us celebrate California's Invasive Species Action Week, and more importantly, help stop the spread of invasive species, by volunteering to take action.

Learn how invasive species are affecting California, with Invasive Species Week Lunchtime Talks (June 7-11, 2021). Webinars are part of California Invasive Species Action Week, organized by the California Department of Fish & Wildlife. Webinars were recorded and available for viewing.

Transport Canada.

Canada's coasts and waterways are vital to our environment, livelihoods, and economy, and must be protected. Ballast water, which helps keep vessels stable in the water, can accidentally introduce and spread aquatic invasive species, like the zebra mussel, if released in the water untreated. To further protect Canadian waters, the Government of Canada is taking action to limit the introduction and spread of aquatic invasive species in ballast water. Today, the Canadian Minister of Transport announced the coming into force of the new Ballast Water Regulations to strengthen existing rules for vessels on international voyages and the introduction of new rules for vessels which remain in Canada and on the Great Lakes. These regulations, which replace the Ballast Water Control and Management Regulations, apply to vessels in Canadian waters and to Canadian vessels anywhere in the world. Vessels are now required to:

  • plan their ballast water management and reduce the number of organisms in their ballast water, typically by installing a ballast water management system; and
  • carry a valid certificate, keep records, and be regularly surveyed and inspected. Smaller vessels may follow an equivalent approach tailored to their operations and size.

For more information, see Managing Ballast Water and Backgrounder: Ballast Water Regulations.