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You are here: Home / Plants / Species Profiles / Yellow Toadflax
Species Profiles

Yellow Toadflax

Yellow ToadflaxScientific name: Linaria vulgaris Mill. (ITIS)

Common names: Yellow toadflax, Butter and eggs, wild snapdragon, common toadflax, ramsted, flaxweed, Jacob's ladder

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Selected Resources

Native To: Eurasia (Zouhar 2003)

Date of U.S. Introduction: Late 1600s (Zouhar 2003)

Means of Introduction: Introduced as an ornamental and medicinal plant (Zouhar 2003)

Impact: Crowds out native species (Zouhar 2003)

Current U.S. Distribution:


Selected Resources:

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Council or Task Force

Fact Sheet: Yellow Toadflax (Jan 2014; PDF | 448 KB)
Alberta Invasive Species Council (Canada).
See also: Fact Sheets for more information about individual invasive species, including those listed as "Prohibited Noxious" and "Noxious" under the Alberta Weed Control Act


Alaska Exotic Plants Information Clearinghouse (AKEPIC): Species Biography - Yellow Toadflax (Mar 19, 2011; PDF | 412 KB)
University of Alaska - Anchorage. Alaska Center for Conservation Science.
See also: Non-Native Plant Species List for additional factsheets (species biographies) and species risk assessment reports of non-native species present in Alaska and also non-native species currently not recorded in Alaska (potential invasives).

Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States - Yellow Toadflax
University of Georgia. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health.

Global Invasive Species Database - Linaria vulgaris (herb)
IUCN. Species Survival Commission. Invasive Species Specialist Group.

Federal Government

U.S. National Plant Germplasm System - Linaria vulgaris
USDA. ARS. National Genetic Resources Program. GRIN-Global.

Fire Effects Information System (FEIS) - Linaria spp.
USDA. FS. Rocky Mountain Research Station. Fire Sciences Laboratory.

Biology and Biological Control of Dalmatian and Yellow Toadflax, 3rd Edition (Jul 2016)
USDA. FS. Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team.

PLANTS Database - Butter and Eggs
USDA. NRCS. National Plant Data Center.

State Government

Encycloweedia: Data Sheet - Linaria genus
California Department of Food and Agriculture.
See also: Included on California's noxious weed list; see Encycloweedia: Program Details for additional resources

Noxious Weed Species - Yellow & Hybrid Toadflax
Colorado Department of Agriculture. Conservation Services Division. Noxious Weed Program.

Yellow-Toadflax: Options for Control (PDF | 573 KB)
Lincoln County Noxious Weed Control Board (Washington).

See also: Weed I.D. and Options for Control for more species

Dalmatian and Yellow Toadflax (PDF | 220 KB)
City and County of Butte-Silver Bow (Montana).


Weed Control in Natural Areas in the Western United States: Yellow Toadflax (2013; PDF | 206 KB)
University of California. Weed Research and Information Center.
See also: Weeds in Natural Areas for more information sheets

Natural Resources Series: Range - Biology and Management of the Toadflaxes
Colorado State University Extension.

Weed Information - Yellow Toadflax
New Mexico State University.

Identification and Control of Invasive and Troublesome Weeds in North Dakota - Dalmatian Toadflax and Yellow Toadflax (PDF | 570 KB)
North Dakota State University. Extension Service.
See also: Identification and Control of Invasive and Troublesome Weeds in North Dakota for more fact sheets

Ohio Perennial & Biennial Weed Guide - Yellow Toadflax
Ohio State University. Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center.

Invasive Species Management in South Dakota - Yellow and Dalmatian Toadflax (Feb 2007; PDF | 457 KB)
South Dakota State University.
See also: Extension Fact Sheets for more species.


Noxious Weed Information - Yellow Toadflax
Colorado Weed Management Association.

Weed Identification - Yellow Toadflax
Montana Weed Control Association.


Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Linaria vulgaris. [Accessed Mar 22, 2015].

Zouhar, K. 2003. Linaria spp. In: Fire Effects Information System. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory.

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Last Modified: Sep 15, 2018
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