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Species Profiles



Scientific name: Elymus repens (L.) Gould subsp. repens (ITIS)

Synonyms: Agropyron firmum J. Presl, Agropyron repens (L.) P. Beauv., Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski, Triticum firmum (J. Presl) Link, Triticum repens L. (GRIN)

Common names: Quackgrass, medusa's head, Quackgrass rye, Quackgrass grass

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Selected Resources

Native To: Eurasia (Klein 2011)

Date of U.S. Introduction: 1600s (Klein 2011)

Means of Introduction: Accidental, probably as a seed contaminant (Klein 2011; Werner and Rioux 1977)

Impact: Crowds out native species and cultivated crops (Klein 2011)

Current U.S. Distribution:



Selected Resources:

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Federal Noxious Weed Disseminules of the U.S. - Fact Sheet: Elytrigia repens
USDA. APHIS. PPQ. Center for Plant Health Science and Technology; California Department of Food and Agriculture.

Alaska Exotic Plants Information Clearinghouse (AKEPIC): Species Biography - Quackgrass (Feb 7, 2011; PDF | 141 KB)
University of Alaska - Anchorage. Alaska Center for Conservation Science.
See also: Non-Native Plant Species List for additional factsheets (species biographies) and species risk assessment reports of non-native species present in Alaska and also non-native species currently not recorded in Alaska (potential invasives).

Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States - Quackgrass
University of Georgia. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health.

TISI Inventory - Quackgrass
Texas State University System. Texas Invasive Species Institute.

Invasive Species Compendium - Elymus repens
CAB International.

Federal Government

U.S. National Plant Germplasm System - Elymus repens
USDA. ARS. National Genetic Resources Program. GRIN-Global.

Fire Effects Information System (FEIS) - Elymus repens
USDA. FS. Rocky Mountain Station. Fire Sciences Laboratory.

PLANTS Database - Quackgrass
USDA. NRCS. National Plant Data Center.

National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS): Chesapeake Bay Introduced Species Database - Elymus repens
Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Environmental Research Center. Marine Invasions Research Lab.

International Government

Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Rural Affairs (Canada).

State Government

Encycloweedia: Data Sheet - Quackgrass
California Department of Food and Agriculture.
See also: Included on California's noxious weed list; see Encycloweedia: Program Details for additional resources

Noxious Weed Species - Quackgrass
Colorado Department of Agriculture. Conservation Services Division. Noxious Weed Program.

Quackgrass (Elytrigia repens) Control Methods in Organic Agriculture (PDF | 1.28 MB)
Maine Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Forestry.
See also: Weeds - Quackgrass for more species resources

Integrated Pest Management Prescription: Quackgrass (Nov 2009; PDF | 290 KB)
Thurston County Public Health and Social Services (Washington). Environmental Health.
See also: IPM for Homeowners & Land Managers for more species


Quackgrass Management on Organic Farms (PDF | 347 KB)
University of Maine. Sustainable Agriculture Program.
See also: For Farmers for more resources

Ohio Perennial & Biennial Weed Guide - Quackgrass
Ohio State University. Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center.

Quackgrass Management: An Integrated Approach - Agronomy Facts 5
Pennsylvania State University. Cooperative Extension..



GRIN-Global. Elymus repens subsp. repens. USDA. ARS. National Genetic Resources Program. U.S. National Plant Germplasm System. [Accessed Jul 26, 2017].

Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Elymus repens. [Accessed Sep 10, 2014].

Klein, H. 2011. Quackgrass (PDF | 141 KB). University of Alaska Anchorage, Alaska Exotic Plants Information Clearinghouse.

Werner, P.A., and R. Rioux. 1977. The biology of Canadian weeds. 24. Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 57(3):905-919.

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Last Modified: Jul 04, 2018
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