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You are here: Home / Plants / Management / Control / Control Mechanisms

Control Mechanisms

Outlines biological, chemical, and mechanical control methods for invasive plant species. See Manager's Tool Kit - Control Mechanisms for general resources and other species.

Fire Management and Invasive Plants: A Handbook (2008; PDF | 1.4 MB)
DOI. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
This manual provides practical guidelines for fire managers to effectively integrate invasive plant management activities into their fire management programs.

Managing Invasive Plants: Concepts, Principles, and Practices
DOI. FWS. National Wildlife Refuge System.
Provides an overview of invasive plant management and planning supported by case studies, quizzes, scientific literature, and web-based resources valuable to natural resource professionals.

Wildland Fire in Ecosystems: Fire and Nonnative Invasive Plants (Sep 2008)
USDA. FS. Rocky Mountain Research Station.
RMRS-GTR-42, vol. 6.
This state-of-knowledge review of information on relationships between wildland fire and nonnative invasive plants can assist fire managers and other land managers concerned with prevention, detection, and eradication or control of nonnative invasive plants.

The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds
Survey monitors the evolution of herbicide-resistant weeds and assesses their impact globally.

Council or Task Force

Use of Fire as a Tool for Controlling Invasive Plants (2006)
California Invasive Plant Council.
See also: Joint Fire Science Program Project 06-S-01 Final Report (May 8, 2006; PDF | 160 KB)

The Weed Workers' Handbook: A Guide to Techniques for Removing Bay Area Invasive Plants (May 2004)
California Invasive Plant Council.

Herbicide Advice for Homeowners (2003; PDF | 203 KB)
Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council.
See also: The Landowners Guide to Exotic Plants for more control resources

FICMNEW's 2005/2006 Workplan (FINAL) (PDF | 147 KB)
Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of Noxious and Exotic Weeds.


Invasive Plant Management Guide
University of Connecticut. Connecticut Invasive Plant Working Group.

Northeastern Area Invasive Forest Plant Species Project: Guide to the Invasive Plant Control (PDF | 2.5 MB)
USDA. Forest Service; Vermont Department of Forests, Parks, and Recreation; Windham County Natural Resources Conservation District; Ellsworth Land Management, LLC.

Federal Government

A Field Guide for the Identification of Invasive Plants in Southern Forests (2010) / Web Version
USDA. Forest Service. Southern Research Station.
Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-119; previous version - Nonnative Invasive Plants of Southern Forests: A Field Guide for Identification and Control (2003).

A Management Guide for Invasive Plants in Southern Forests (Nov 2010) / Web Version
USDA. Forest Service. Southern Research Station
Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-119
Provides homeowners, gardeners, land managers and others information on controlling and removing invasive plants in the South. The guide provides information on developing strategies for controlling 56 of the most pervasive invasive species in the South. See above for companion guide (A Field Guide for the Identification of Invasive Plants in Southern Forests).

Treatment of Invasive Plants
DOI. NPS. Yosemite National Park.

Biological Control of Invasive Plants in the Eastern United States (Aug 2002)
Published by: USDA. Forest Service. Publication FHTET-2002-04.

Dangerous Travelers: Controlling Invasive Plants Along America's Roadway
USDA. FS. Invasive Species Program.
Published by: USDA. FS. San Dimas Technology and Development Center; National Forest System Invasive Species Program, DOT, Federal Highway Administration; DOI, Fish and Wildlife Service. This video will help maintenance crews recognize and control noxious weeds along roadsides. Road crews that maintain any type road, from interstate
highways to aggregate roads, are the frontline in preventing the spread of invasive plants.
Note: The video links require Windows Media Player for .wmv files.

Exotic Pest Plants and Their Control
USDA. FS. Southern Research Station.
James H. Miller (Revised Feb 25, 2002)

(Federal) Noxious Weeds Program
USDA. APHIS. Plant Protection and Quarantine.
See also: Noxious Weeds Program: Regulations and Noxious Weed Regulations (Electronic Code of Federal Regulations; Title 7: Agriculture, Part 360).

Invasive Plants of Asian Origin Established in the United States and Their Natural Enemies (Vol 1; 2nd Ed) (Mar 2006; PDF | 7.1 MB)
USDA. FS. Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team.
See also: FHTET Publications for more resources

Invasive Plants Established in the United States that are Found in Asia and Their Associated Natural Enemies (Vol 2; 2nd Ed) (Mar 2006; PDF | 8 MB)
USDA. FS. Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team.
See also: FHTET Publications for more resources

Team Leafy Spurge
USDA. Agricultural Research Service.
A USDA-ARS research and demonstration program focusing on the Little Missouri River and associated watersheds in Wyoming, Montana, North Dakota and South Dakota. Its goal is to research, develop and demonstrate ecologically based integrated pest management strategies that landowners and land managers can use to achieve effective, affordable leafy spurge control. The project is conducted in collaboration with the USDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

International Government

Biological Control Options for Invasive Weeds of New Zealand Protected Areas (Jun 2002; PDF | 467 KB)
New Zealand Department of Conservation.

State Government

Conservation Services Division - Biocontrol
Colorado Department of Agriculture.
Biological pest control helps decrease agriculture's reliance on chemical pest control. The Colorado Department of Agriculture's Insectary imports, rears, establishes, and colonizes new beneficial organisms for control of specific plant and insect pests. Successful biological pest control reduces production costs, decreases amounts of chemicals entering the environment, and establishes colonies of beneficial insects offering a natural permanent pest control solution. This program offers the citizens of Colorado a useful alternative to the use of chemicals for control of specific pests.

Creating an Integrated Weed Management Plan: A Handbook for Owners and Managers of Lands with Natural Values (Mar 2000; PDF | 1.9 MB)
Colorado Department of Natural Resources. Colorado Natural Areas Program; Colorado Department of Agriculture. Plant Industry.
See also: Pesticides & Fish & Wildlife Resources for more publications

Problem Plant Control
Missouri Department of Conservation.
Based on the Missouri Vegetation Management Manual, these control recommendations are for 25 of the most troublesome invasive, non-native plants in Missouri.

Managing Invasive Alien Plants in Natural Areas, Parks, and Small Woodlands (PDF | 169 KB)
Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation. Natural Heritage Program.
An introduction and guide to invasive plant management, produced by the Virginia Department of Conservation & Recreation's Natural Heritage Program.
See also: Invasive Plant Factsheets for more resources

Invasive Plant Management for Land Managers (PDF | 3.57 MB)
Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources.
See also: Wild Plants - Invasive Plants for more resources

Invasive Species - Control Methods
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.


Biological Control: A Guide to Natural Enemies in North America - Weed-feeders
Cornell University. New York State Agricultural Experiment Station. Department of Entomology.

Biological Control of Forest Pests in the Eastern United States
University of Massachusetts - Amherst.

Biological Control of Invasive Plants Research
University of Delaware. College of Agriculture & Natural Resources.

Chemical Weed Control for Field Crops, Pastures, Rangeland, and Noncropland (2017; PDF | 1.77 MB)
Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service.
See also: Weed Management Publications for more resources

Chemical Weed Control in Tree Plantings (Apr 2007)
Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service.

Weed Control Options in Tree Plantings (Nov 2012)
Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service.

Invasive Plant Management: Control Methods
Montana State University. Center for Invasive Species Management.
Includes: Biocontrol, grazing, herbicides, mechanical and prescribed burning

Identification Tool for Weevil Biological Control Agents of Aquatic and Terrestrial Weeds in the United States and Canada
Florida A&M University. Center for Biological Control.
The tool utilizes Lucid 3.3 software and comprises an interactive key for identification and verification based on detailed species information with 140 images, and covering 38 beneficial weevil species (36 exotic and 2 endemic in the U.S.) in 28 genera in Canada and the U.S.

Targeted Grazing: A Natural Approach to Vegetation Management and Landscape Enhancement - A handbook on grazing as a new ecological service (Dec 2006)
University of Idaho. Rangeland Ecology and Management.
Prepared by: American Sheep Industry Association

Weed Management for Small Rural Acreages
Colorado State University. Cooperative Extension.


Benefits of Pesticide Use
National Center for Food and Agriculture Policy.
This project identifies the target pests and documents the historical record of pest control. Chemicals are compared with organic practices for four categories: fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, and plant growth regulators.

Noxious Weed Integrated Vegetation Management Guide
IPM Practitioners Association.

Biological Control
Weed Science Society of America.

Weed Science Society of America.

Plant Pathogens at Work: Progress and Possibilities for Weed Biocontrol (2006)
American Phytopathological Society.

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Last Modified: Sep 10, 2018
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