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You are here: Home / Microbes / Species Profiles / White-Nose Syndrome
Species Profiles

White-Nose Syndrome

Little brown bat with fungus on muzzle (White-nose syndrome) -  NY Dept of Envrionmental ConservationScientific name: Fungus, formerly known as Geomyces destructans is now known as Pseudogymnoascus destructans, or Pd. (Minnis and Lindner 2013)

Common name: White-Nose Syndrome

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Selected Resources

Native To: Europe (Leopardi et al. 2015)

Date of U.S. Introduction: First discovered in a cave near Albany, New York in Feb 2006. New York Department of Environmental Conservation biologists documented white-nose syndrome in Jan 2007. (Blehert et al. 2011)

Means of Introduction: Most likely introduced by human activity, possibly by a visitor to a show cave in New York. (Leopardi et al. 2015; Puechmaille et al. 2011)

Impact: Disease of bats causing a population decline of 72 to 88 percent of hibernating species in the northeastern U.S. (Lorch et al. 2012; Puechmaille et al. 2011)

Current U.S. Distribution:



Selected Resources:

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White-Nose Syndrome.org - A Coordinated Response to the Devastating Bat Disease
DOI. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Invasive Species Compendium - White-nose syndrome
CAB International.

Federal Government

Help Us Slow the Spread of White-nose Syndrome (PDF | 856 KB)
USDA. FS. Eastern Region.

White-Nose Syndrome and North Carolina - An Overview (May 2010; PDF | 374 KB)
DOI. Fish and Wildlife Service.
See also: Conservation Issues in the Asheville Field Office for more factsheets

White-Nose Syndrome Threatens the Survival of Hibernating Bats in North America
DOI. USGS. Fort Collins Science Center.

Disease Information - White-Nose Syndrome (WNS)
DOI. USGS. National Wildlife Health Center.

International Government

Animal Health and Diseases - White-Nose Syndrome
Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Australia). Office of Biosecurity.

White-Nose Syndrome in Alberta (Jul 2009; PDF | 475 KB)
Alberta Sustainable Resource Development (Canada). Fish and Wildlife.
See also: Common Wildlife Diseases & Parasites for more fact sheets

Wildlife Diseases - White-Nose Syndrome
British Columbia Ministry of Environment (Canada).

White Nose Syndrome in Bats
Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (Canada). Wildlife Management.

State Government

Bats and White-nose Syndrome
Arizona Game and Fish Department.

Delaware's Bat Program
Delaware Division of Fish and Wildlife.

White-Nose Syndrome in Bats
Indiana Department of Natural Resources.

Disease Issues in Mammals - White Nose Syndrome
Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife.

Michigan Emerging Disease Issues - White Nose Syndrome in Bats
State of Michigan.

White-nose Syndrome and Minnesota's Bats
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources.

Wildlife-Related Diseases - White-Nose Syndrome (WNS)
Pennsylvania Game Commission.

White-Nose Syndrome in Virginia
Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries.

Wildlife Health - White Nose Syndrome
Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.


White Nose Syndrome Information (PDF | 155 KB)
Indiana State University. Center for North American Bat Research and Conservation.

White-Nose Syndrome: A Deadly Disease of Bats
Ohio State University. Extension.


Serious Threats - White-nose Syndrome
Bat Conservation International.

White Nose Syndrome Page: A Project of the Biological Response Committee
National Speleological Society.

Threats to Bats - White-nose Syndrome
Bat Conservation Trust (United Kingdom).

Exotic - White Nose Syndrome Fact Sheet (2015; PDF | 630 KB)
Wildlife Health Australia.
See also: Exotic Fact Sheets for more species


Blehert, D.S., J.M. Lorch, A.E. Ballmann, P.M. Cryan, and C.U. Meteyer. 2011. Bat white-nose syndrome in North America. Microbe 6(6):267-273.

Leopardi, S., D. Blake, and S.J. Puechmaille. 2015. White-Nose Syndrome fungus introduced from Europe to North America. Current Biology 25(6):R217-R219.

Lorch, J.M., L.K. Muller, R.E. Russell, M. O'Connor, D.L. Lindner, and D.S. Blehert. 2012. Distribution and environmental persistence of the causative agent of white-nose syndrome, Geomyces destructans, in bat hibernacula of the eastern United States. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 79(4):1293-1301.

Minnis, A.M. and D. L. Lindner. 2013. Phylogenetic evaluation of Geomyces and allies reveals no close relatives of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, comb. nov., in bat hibernacula of eastern North America. Fungal Biology 117(9):638–649.

Puechmaille, S.J., W.F. Frick, T.H. Kunz, P.A. Racey, C.C. Voigt, G. Wibbelt, and E.C. Teeling. 2011. White-nose syndrome: is this emerging disease a threat to European bats? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 26(11):570-576.

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Last Modified: Apr 19, 2017
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