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You are here: Home / Microbes / Species Profiles / Whirling Disease
Species Profiles

Whirling Disease

Whirling DiseaseScientific name: Myxobolus cerebralis (CABI)

Common name: Whirling disease

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Selected Resources

Native To: Eurasia (Hedrick et al. 1998)

Date of U.S. Introduction: First discovered in Pennsylvania in 1958 (Hedrick et al. 1998)

Means of Introduction: Probably through imported trout (Hedrick et al. 1998)

Impact: Disease of trout and salmon (Hedrick et al. 1998)

Current U.S. Distribution: Western U.S.; Northeastern U.S.



Selected Resources:

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Council or Task Force

Pest Risk Assessment for Whirling Disease (Myxobolus cerebralis) in Oregon (Feb 2009; PDF | 94 KB)
Oregon Invasive Species Council.


GLANSIS - Salmonid Whirling Disease
DOC. NOAA. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory; DOI. USGS. Wetland and Aquatic Research Center.

TISI Inventory - Whirling Disease
Texas State University System. Texas Invasive Species Institute.

Invasive Species Compendium - Myxobolus cerebralis
CAB International.

Global Invasive Species Database - Myxobolus cerebralis (micro-organism)
IUCN. Species Survival Commission. Invasive Species Specialist Group.

What is Whirling Disease? (PDF | 551 KB)
North Central Regional Aquaculture Center.
See also: Fish Pathology publications for more diseases

Federal Government

Fish and Aquatic Species - Whirling Disease
DOI. NPS. Yellowstone National Park.

National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS): Chesapeake Bay Introduced Species Database - Myxobolus cerebralis
Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Environmental Research Center. Marine Invasions Research Lab.

International Government

Aquatic Animal Diseases Significant to Australia: Identification Field Guide, 4th Edition - Whirling Disease (2012; PDF | 2.2 MB)
Australian Government. Department of Agriculture and Water Resources.
Produced by: Australian Department of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry
See also: Aquatic Animal Diseases Significant to Australia: Identification Field Guide, 4th Edition

Reportable Diseases - Whirling Disease
Canadian Food Inspection Agency.

State Government

Aquatic Invasive Species: Whirling Disease Risk Analysis for Arizona (Oct/Nov 2012; PDF | 274 KB)
Arizona Game and Fish Department.
See also: Aquatic Invasive Species for additional risk analyses and related species information

Whirling Disease and Colorado's Trout
Colorado Parks and Wildlife.

Aquatic Invasive Species: Whirling Disease (Apr 2005; PDF | 94 KB)
Indiana Department of Natural Resources.
See also: Invasive Species for exotic animal and plant pests invading Indiana, causing economic and visual damage

Fisheries Service - Whirling Disease
Maryland Department of Natural Resources.

Whirling Disease and Oregon's Trout and Salmon
Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife.

Fishing - Whirling Disease
Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency

Whirling Disease in Utah
Utah Department of Natural Resources. Division of Wildlife Resources. Fisheries Experiment Station.


Introduced Species Summary Project - Whirling Disease
Columbia University. Center for Environmental Research and Conservation.


CABI. Invasive Species Compendium. Myxobolus cerebralis. CAB International. [Accessed Apr 14, 2015].

Hedrick, R.P., M.A. Adkison, M. El-Matbouli, and E. MacConnell. 1998. Whirling disease: re-emergence among wild trout. Immunological Reviews 166(1):365-376.

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Last Modified: Aug 20, 2018
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