Random invasive species images that represents what NISIC does
USDA.gov NAL NISIC Sudden oak death Formosan subterranean termite Yellow star thistle Giant African snail Cactus moth Purple loosestrife
HomeAbout National Invasive Species Information Center (NISIC)News and EventscouncilHelpContact Us
 Search the National Invasive Species Information Center
Search all USDA
Advanced Search
Search Tips
Browse by Geography
United States
Browse by Subject
Aquatic Species
Economic Impacts
Laws and Regulations
Manager's Tool Kit
Resource Library
You are here: Home / Microbes / Species Profiles / Whirling Disease
Species Profiles

Whirling Disease

Whirling DiseaseScientific name: Myxobolus cerebralis (CABI)

Common name: Whirling disease

Click image to enlarge

Selected Resources

Native To: Eurasia (Hedrick et al. 1998)

Date of U.S. Introduction: First discovered in Pennsylvania in 1958 (Hedrick et al. 1998)

Means of Introduction: Probably through imported trout (Hedrick et al. 1998)

Impact: Disease of trout and salmon (Hedrick et al. 1998)

Current U.S. Distribution: Western U.S.; Northeastern U.S.

  • Where Does the Whirling Disease Parasite Occur?
    Montana Water Center. Whirling Disease Initiative.
    Provides detection of whirling disease parasite in the U.S. (1956-2007) as well as individual state distribution (updated summer 2009).



Selected Resources:

Back to Top

Council or Task Force

Pest Risk Assessment for Whirling Disease (Myxobolus cerebralis) in Oregon (Feb 2009; PDF | 94 KB)
Oregon Invasive Species Council.


GLANIS - Salmonid Whirling Disease
DOC. NOAA. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory; DOI. USGS. Wetland and Aquatic Research Center.

TISI Inventory - Whirling Disease
Texas State University System. Texas Invasive Species Institute.

Invasive Species Compendium - Myxobolus cerebralis
CAB International.

Global Invasive Species Database - Myxobolus cerebralis (micro-organism)
IUCN. Species Survival Commission. Invasive Species Specialist Group.

What is Whirling Disease? (PDF | 551 KB)
North Central Regional Aquaculture Center.
See also: Fish Pathology publications for more diseases

Federal Government

Fish and Aquatic Species - Whirling Disease
DOI. NPS. Yellowstone National Park.

International Government

Aquatic Animal Diseases Significant to Australia: Identification Field Guide, 4th Edition - Whirling Disease (2012; PDF | 2.2 MB)
Australian Government. Department of Agriculture and Water Resources.
Produced by: Australian Department of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry
See also: Aquatic Animal Diseases Significant to Australia: Identification Field Guide, 4th Edition (Foreword and entire guide)

Reportable Diseases - Whirling Disease
Canadian Food Inspection Agency.

State Government

Arizona Risk Analysis: Whirling Disease (2012; PDF | 274 KB)
Arizona Game and Fish Department.

Whirling Disease and Colorado's Trout
Colorado Parks and Wildlife.

Aquatic Invasive Species: Whirling Disease (Apr 2005; PDF | 94 KB)
Indiana Department of Natural Resources.
See also: Invasive Species for exotic animal and plant pests invading Indiana, causing economic and visual damage

Fisheries Service - Whirling Disease
Maryland Department of Natural Resources.

Whirling Disease: A Resource Stewardship Challenge
New York State Department of Environmental Conservation.

Whirling Disease and Oregon's Trout and Salmon
Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife.

Whirling Disease in Utah
Utah Department of Natural Resources. Division of Wildlife Resources. Fisheries Experiment Station.


Introduced Species Summary Project - Whirling Disease
Columbia University. Center for Environmental Research and Conservation.


Whirling Disease Initiative
Montana Water Center. Whirling Disease Initiative.
Note: The final Cooperative Agreement between the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service and the Montana Water Center for the Whirling Disease Initiative was executed in spring 2006, and will terminate in spring 2009. After that time the Initiative website will continue to be maintained by the Water Center, but the site will not be augmented or updated.


CABI. Invasive Species Compendium. Myxobolus cerebralis. CAB International. [Accessed Apr 14, 2015].

Hedrick, R.P., M.A. Adkison, M. El-Matbouli, and E. MacConnell. 1998. Whirling disease: re-emergence among wild trout. Immunological Reviews 166(1):365-376.

Back to Top
Last Modified: Apr 19, 2017
Bookmark and Share
I Want To
    Read Recent News Articles
    Find Management Plans
    Locate Images
    Find Experts

More ...

    Species Profiles
    Discussion Groups
    Economic Impacts
    Educational Resources
    Image Galleries
    Frequently Asked Questions
    What You Can Do
Media Help
 To view PDF files, you must have Adobe® Acrobat® installed on your computer.

To view multimedia files, you must have Adobe® Flash® installed on your computer.

 NISIC Home | NAL Home | USDA | AgNIC | Agricultural Research Service | Web Policies and Important Links | Site Map
FOIA | Accessibility Statement| Privacy Policy | Non-Discrimination Statement | Information Quality | USA.gov | White House