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You are here: Home / Microbes / Species Profiles / Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia
Species Profiles

Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia

Viral hemorrhagic septicemia symptomsScientific name: Novirhabdovirus sp. (Family Rhabdoviridae) (Kim and Faisal 2011)

Common names: Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHS), Egtved virus

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Selected Resources

Native To: First detected in Europe (Warren 2002)

Date of U.S. Introduction: Present in the Great Lakes since 2002 (NPS 2008)

Means of Introduction: Great Lakes strain possibly introduced from ballast water or migratory fishes on the Atlantic coast (NPS 2008)

Impact: Viral disease of fish that infects a wide range of species and can cause large fish kills (NPS 2008)

Current U.S. Distribution: Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River

Federal Order:

  • Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia; Interstate Movement and Import Restrictions on Certain Live Fish (Jan 16, 2015)
    APHIS is withdrawing an interim rule published Sep 9, 2008 that established regulations to restrict the interstate movement and importation into the United States of live fish that are susceptible to viral hemorrhagic septicemia, a highly contagious disease of certain fresh and saltwater fish. APHIS is taking this action after considering the comments they received following the publication of the interim rule, which subsequently delayed the effective date of the interim rule indefinitely.



Selected Resources:

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Council or Task Force

Stop the Invasion: Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (Jun 2016; PDF | 309 KB)
Washington State Recreation and Conservation Office. Washington Invasive Species Council.
See also: Outreach and Educational Materials - Invasive Species Fact Sheets for more resources


GLANSIS - Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (VHSV-IVb)
DOC. NOAA. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory; DOI. USGS. Wetland and Aquatic Research Center.

New York Invasive Species Information - Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia
New York Invasive Species Clearinghouse.

Texas Invasives Database - Novirhabdovirus sp.

Invasive Species Compendium - Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus
CAB International.

Fish Diseases: Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia (2009; PDF | 2.46 MB)
Northeastern Regional Aquaculture Center.

See also: Northeastern Regional Aquaculture Center Fact Sheets for more fact sheets.

About Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia (VHS) Virus (Feb 2011; PDF | 871 KB)
Western Regional Aquaculture Center.
See also: WRAC Extension Publications for more fact sheets.

Federal Government

Aquaculture Information: Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia
USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

Apostle Islands National Lakeshore - Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia
DOI. National Park Service.

International Government

Aquatic Animal Diseases Significant to Australia: Identification Field Guide, 4th Edition - Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (VHS) (2012; PDF | 4.1 MB)
Australian Government. Department of Agriculture and Water Resources.
Produced by: Australian Department of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry
See also: Aquatic Animal Diseases Significant to Australia: Identification Field Guide, 4th Edition

Reportable Diseases - Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia (VHS)
Canadian Food Inspection Agency.

State Government

Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia (VHS)
Michigan Department of Natural Resources.

Fish Diseases: Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia (VHS)
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources.

Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia (VHS) in New York
New York State Department of Environmental Conservation.

Fishing Wisconsin - Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Fish Virus
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.


Animal Disease Information - Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia
Iowa State University. Center for Food Security and Public Health.

Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia (VHS) in the Great Lakes (PDF | 419 KB)
Michigan Sea Grant.
See also: Fisheries for more fact sheets.

Factsheet: Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia
Pennsylvania State University. Pennsylvania Sea Grant.
See also: Aquatic Invasive Species: Resources for additional species information


A Guide to Integrated Fish Health Management in the Great Lakes Basin: Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia - Chapter 19 (June 2002; PDF | 26 KB)
Great Lakes Fishery Commission.
See also: Table of Contents for complete document.


Kim, R., and M. Faisal. 2011. Emergence and resurgence of the viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (Novirhabdovirus, Rhabdoviridae, Mononegavirales). Journal of Advanced Research 2(1):9-23.

U.S. National Park Service. 2008. Emergency Prevention and Response Plan for Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia (PDF | 2.09 MB). National Park System Units and the Grand Portage Indian Reservation within the Lake Superior Basin.

Warren, J.W. 2002. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia (PDF | 26 KB). In: F.P. Meyer, J.W. Warren, and T.G. Carey (Eds.), A Guide to Integrated Fish Health Management in the Great Lakes Basin (pp. 175-179). Ann Arbor, Mich.: Great Lakes Fishery Commission.

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Last Modified: Jul 20, 2018
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