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You are here: Home / Microbes / Species Profiles / Exotic Newcastle Disease
Species Profiles

Exotic Newcastle Disease

Exotic Newcastle DiseaseScientific name: Paramyxovirus-1 (PMV-1)

Common names: Exotic Newcastle disease, Velogenic Newcastle disease, Asiatic Newcastle disease

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Selected Resources

Native To: First appeared in Indonesia in 1926; United Kingdom 1927 (OIE 2009)

Date of U.S. Introduction: 1970s (First outbreak of exotic strain in the U.S.; was eradicated in 1974). The most recent U.S. outbreak in 2002-2003 affected poultry in several states: Arizona, California, Nevada and Texas. The industry suffered a devastating blow when more than 3.4 million birds had to be destroyed. California alone spent more than $160 million to control the outbreak. (California Department of Food and Agriculture 2011)

Means of Introduction: Could arrive in the U.S. in imported poultry (CFSPH 2008)

Impacts: Lethal to birds, including poultry; exposure can lead to conjunctivitis in humans (OIE 2009)

Current U.S. Distribution: Not currently established in the U.S.


Selected Resources:

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Invasive Species Compendium - Newcastle Disease Virus
CAB International.

Newcastle Disease - Technical Disease Card (PDF | 219 KB)
World Organization for Animal Health.

Global Invasive Species Database - Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) (micro-organism)
IUCN. Species Survival Commission. Invasive Species Specialist Group.

Federal Government

Field Manual of Wildlife Diseases: General Field Procedures and Diseases of Birds - Viral Diseases: Chapter 21 - Newcastle Disease (PDF | 1.4 MB)
DOI. National Wildlife Health Center.
See the complete field manual, a revised and expanded version of the 1988 Volume 1, Field Guide to Wildlife Diseases, was funded by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Federal Aid, Administrative Grant No. AP95-017.

International Government

Newcastle Disease
Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries (Australia).

Newcastle Disease - Questions and Answers
Victoria Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport and Resources (Australia).

Newcastle Disease Virus in Alberta (PDF | 252 KB)
Alberta Sustainable Resource Development (Canada). Fish and Wildlife.

Newcastle Disease: How to Spot and Report It
United Kingdom Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs.

State Government

Exotic Newcastle Disease (END)
Arizona Department of Agriculture.

Exotic Newcastle Information
California Department of Food and Agriculture. Animal Health Branch.

Exotic Newcastle Disease
Georgia Department of Agriculture.

Exotic Newcastle Disease
Montana Department of Livestock. Animal Health Division.

Wildlife-Related Diseases - Newcastle Disease
Pennsylvania Game Commission.

Exotic Newcastle Disease (Jan 2010; PDF | 145 KB)
South Dakota Animal Industry Board.

Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) (PDF | 45 KB)
Texas Animal Health Commission.


Newcastle Disease
Iowa State University. Center for Food Security and Public Health.


Newcastle Disease (PDF | 154 KB)
American Poultry Association.

Merck Veterninary Manual - Newcastle Disease in Poultry
Merck & Co., Inc.


California Department of Food and Agriculture. 2011. Newcastle Disease Information.

Center for Food Security and Public Health. 2008. Newcastle Disease (PDF | 125 KB).  Iowa State University.

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). 2009. Newcastle Disease (PDF | 603 KB). General Disease Information Sheets.

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Last Modified: Sep 28, 2016
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