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You are here: Home / Microbes / Species Profiles / Exotic Newcastle Disease
Species Profiles

Exotic Newcastle Disease

Exotic Newcastle DiseaseScientific name: Paramyxovirus-1 (PMV-1)

Common names: Exotic Newcastle disease (END), Velogenic Newcastle disease, Asiatic Newcastle disease

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Selected Resources

Native To: First appeared in Indonesia in 1926; United Kingdom 1927 (OIE 2009)

Date of U.S. Introduction: 1970s (First outbreak of exotic strain in the U.S.; was eradicated in 1974). The most recent U.S. outbreak in 2002-2003 affected poultry in several states: Arizona, California, Nevada and Texas. The industry suffered a devastating blow when more than 3.1 million birds had to be destroyed. California alone spent more than $160 million to control the outbreak. (California Department of Food and Agriculture 2011)

Means of Introduction: Could arrive in the U.S. in imported poultry (CFSPH 2016)

Impact: Lethal to birds, including poultry; exposure can lead to conjunctivitis in humans (OIE 2009)

Current U.S. Distribution: Not currently established in the U.S.


Selected Resources:

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Invasive Species Compendium - Newcastle Disease Virus
CAB International.

Newcastle Disease - Technical Disease Card (PDF | 219 KB)
World Organization for Animal Health.
See also: Technical Disease Cards for more diseases

Global Invasive Species Database - Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) (micro-organism)
IUCN. Species Survival Commission. Invasive Species Specialist Group.

Federal Government

Field Manual of Wildlife Diseases: General Field Procedures and Diseases of Birds - Viral Diseases: Chapter 21 - Newcastle Disease (1999; PDF | 1.4 MB)
DOI. USGS. National Wildlife Health Center.
See also: The complete field manual (Information and Technology Report 1999-001), a revised and expanded version of the 1988 Volume 1, Field Guide to Wildlife Diseases

International Government

Pests, Diseases, and Disorders of Animals: Newcastle Disease
Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Australia). Office of Biosecurity.

Newcastle Disease - Questions and Answers
Victoria Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport and Resources (Australia).

Newcastle Disease Virus in Alberta (PDF | 252 KB)
Alberta Sustainable Resource Development (Canada). Fish and Wildlife.
See also: Common Wildlife Diseases & Parasites for more fact sheets

Newcastle Disease: How to Spot and Report It
United Kingdom Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs.

State Government

Exotic Newcastle Disease - California Historical Reflection
California Department of Food and Agriculture. Animal Health Branch.

Animal Health - Exotic Newcastle Disease
Georgia Department of Agriculture.

Animal Diseases - Exotic Newcastle Disease
Montana Department of Livestock. Animal Health Division.

Wildlife-Related Diseases - Newcastle Disease
Pennsylvania Game Commission.

Exotic Newcastle Disease Pamphlet (Jan 2010; PDF | 145 KB)
South Dakota Animal Industry Board.
See also: Avian Health for more information

Exotic Newcastle Disease Brochure (PDF | 45 KB)
Texas Animal Health Commission.
See also: Poultry Health for more diseases


Animal Disease Information - Newcastle Disease
Iowa State University. Center for Food Security and Public Health.


Newcastle Disease (PDF | 154 KB)
American Poultry Association.
See also: Poultry Help/Disease Articles for more diseases

Merck Veterninary Manual - Newcastle Disease in Poultry
Merck & Co., Inc.


California Department of Food and Agriculture. 2011. Newcastle Disease Information.

Center for Food Security and Public Health. 2016. Newcastle Disease (PDF | 310 KB).  Iowa State University.

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). 2009. Newcastle Disease (PDF | 603 KB). General Disease Information Sheets.

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Last Modified: Apr 13, 2018
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