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You are here: Home / Microbes / Species Profiles / Citrus Greening
Species Profiles

Citrus Greening

Citrus greening - Invasive.orgScientific name: Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus

Common name: Citrus greening, Huanglongbing (HLB), yellow shoot disease, yellow dragon disease

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  • USDA Invests $13.6 Million in Citrus Greening Research (Jan 19, 2017)
    U.S. Department of Agriculture.
    The U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) today announced four grants totaling more than $13.6 million to combat a scourge on the nation's citrus industry, citrus greening disease, aka Huanglongbing. The funding is made possible through NIFA's Specialty Crop Research Initiative (SCRI) Citrus Disease Research and Extension Program, authorized by the 2014 Farm Bill.

Selected Resources

Native To: Asia (Wang and Trivedi 2013)

Date of U.S. Introduction: The vector, Diaphorina citri, was first discovered in Florida in 1998; the disease was first discovered in Florida in 2005; Louisiana in 2008; South Carolina and Georgia in 2009; California and Texas in 2012 (Michaud 2004; Wang and Trivedi 2013)

Means of Introduction: Possibly through illegally imported plant material (Michaud 2004)

Impact: Bacterial disease that infects citrus trees, where it shortens the lifespan of trees and reduces fruit yield and quality (Wang and Trivedi 2013)

Current U.S. Distribution:




Selected Resources:

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Find Latest Information About Citrus Greening

Texas Citrus Greening
Texas Citrus Greening.

Invasive Species Compendium - Citrus Huanglongbing (greening) disease
CAB International.

Plantwise Technical Factsheet - Asian Greening (Liberibacter asiaticus)
CABI. Plantwise Knowledge Bank.

EPPO Global Database - Liberibacter asiaticus
European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

Federal Government

Multi-Agency Response to Devastating Citrus Disease
U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Huanglongbing (Citrus Greening): What ARS Is Doing
USDA. Agricultural Research Service.

Plant Pests and Diseases Program: Plant Disease - Citrus Greening
USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

Hungry Pests: The Threat - Citrus Greening
USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

Save Our Citrus
USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

Citrus Pests - Huanglongbing
USDA. APHIS. PPQ. CPHST. Identification Technology Program.
See also: Citrus Resource

International Government

Emergency Plant Pests and Diseases: Citrus Greening (Huanglongbing)
Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Australia). Office of Biosecurity.

State Government

Pest and Disease: Asian Citrus Psyllid and Huanglongbing
California Department of Food and Agriculture. Citrus Pest and Disease Prevention Program.
The Citrus Pest & Disease Prevention Program is an initiative funded by California citrus growers and administered by the California Department of Food and Agriculture dedicated to combating serious pests and diseases that threaten the state's citrus trees.

Asian Citrus Psyllid (ACP) and Huanglongbing (HLB)
California Department of Food and Agriculture. Plant Health Division.

Pests & Diseases - Huanglongbing (HLB)/Citrus Greening Disease Information
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Plant Industry.

Citrus Greening - Huanglongbing (Yellow Dragon Disease): A New Threat to Florida Citrus
Broward County Parks and Recreation Division (Florida). Extension Education.

Disease Identification and Management Series - Citrus Greening
Louisiana State University. AgCenter Research and Extension.
Publication 3359
See also: Plant Diagnostic Center - Publications for more resources

Plant Disease Alert: Citrus Greening Disease and Asian Citrus Psyllid (Mar 2009; PDF | 148 KB)
Nevada Department of Agriculture.
See also: New Disease Alerts for more resources


Asian Citrus Pysllid Distribution and Management
University of California. Agriculture and Natural Resources.
Provides information to both growers and home gardeners, in two distinct sub-sites -- to get the basics on the insect and the disease it can vector, how to inspect your trees, how to treat your tree if you find ACP, critical things to do to help contain the insect population and deal with Huanglongbing (HLB), as well as additional information more specific to California.

Citrus Bacterial Canker Disease and Huanglongbing (Citrus Greening) (2007)
University of California. Agriculture and Natural Resources.
ANR Publication 8218

Citrus Greening (Huanglongbing), Candidatus Liberibacter africanus, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus and Candidatus Liberibacter americanus
University of California - Riverside. Center for Invasive Species Research.

Plant Pathology - Citrus Greening (Huanglongbing)
University of Florida. IFAS. Citrus Research and Education Center.

EDIS - Citrus Greening (Huanglongbing)
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
Electronic Data Information Source - publication resources

Radcliffe's IPM World Textbook - Citrus Greening and its Psyllid Vector
University of Minnesota.
University of Minnesota's electronic textbook of Integrated Pest Management, Radcliffe's IPM World Textbook, features contributed chapters by internationally recognized experts.


Citrus Huanglongbing: Understanding the Vector-Pathogen Interaction for Disease Management (Sep 2007)
American Phytopathological Society.

Pest Advisory Leaflet No. 45 - Huanglongbing Disease of Citrus Trees (Jun 2005; PDF | 231 KB)
Secretariat of the Pacific Community. Plant Protection Service.
See also: Pest Advisory Leaflets for more resources


Michaud, J.P. 2004. Natural mortality of Asian citrus psyllid (Homoptera: Psyllidae) in central Florida. Biological Control 29(2):260-269.

Wang, N., and P. Trivedi. 2013. Citrus huanglongbing: a newly relevant disease presents unprecedented challenges. Phytopathology 103(7):652-665.

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Last Modified: May 11, 2017
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