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You are here: Home / Microbes / Species Profiles / Citrus Greening
Species Profiles

Citrus Greening

Citrus greening - Invasive.orgScientific name: Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus

Common name: Citrus greening, Huanglongbing (HLB), yellow shoot disease, yellow dragon disease

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Selected Resources

Native To: Asia (Wang and Trivedi 2013)

Date of U.S. Introduction: The vector, Diaphorina citri, was first discovered in Florida in 1998; the disease was first discovered in Florida in 2005; Louisiana in 2008; South Carolina and Georgia in 2009; California and Texas in 2012 (Michaud 2004; Wang and Trivedi 2013)

Means of Introduction: Possibly through illegally imported plant material (Michaud 2004)

Impact: Bacterial disease that infects citrus trees, where it shortens the lifespan of trees and reduces fruit yield and quality (Wang and Trivedi 2013)

Current U.S. Distribution:




Selected Resources:

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Citrus Pests - Huanglongbing
USDA. APHIS. PPQ. CPHST. Identification Technology Program.
See also: Citrus Resource

Multi-Agency Response to Devastating Citrus Disease
U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Partners of the HLB Multi-Agency Coordination (MAC) Group to jointly collaborate on policy decisions, establish priorities, allocate critical resources, and collect, analyze, and disseminate information.

Find Latest Information About Citrus Greening

Invasive Species Compendium - Citrus Huanglongbing (greening) disease
CAB International.

Plantwise Technical Factsheet - Asian Greening (Liberibacter asiaticus)
CABI. Plantwise Knowledge Bank.

EPPO Global Database - Liberibacter asiaticus
European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

Federal Government

Huanglongbing (Citrus Greening): What ARS Is Doing
USDA. Agricultural Research Service.

Hungry Pests: The Threat - Citrus Greening
USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

Save Our Citrus
USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

International Government

Emergency Plant Pests and Diseases: Citrus Greening (Huanglongbing)
Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Australia). Office of Biosecurity.

Pest Advisory Leaflet No. 45 - Huanglongbing Disease of Citrus Trees (Jun 2005; PDF | 231 KB)
Secretariat of the Pacific Community. Plant Protection Service.
See also: Pest Advisory Leaflets for more resources

State Government

Asian Citrus Psyllid (ACP) and Huanglongbing (HLB)
California Department of Food and Agriculture. Plant Health Division.

Citrus Greening - Huanglongbing (Yellow Dragon Disease): A New Threat to Florida Citrus
Broward County Parks and Recreation Division (Florida). Extension Education.

Pest and Disease: Asian Citrus Psyllid and Huanglongbing
California Department of Food and Agriculture. Citrus Pest and Disease Prevention Program.
The Citrus Pest & Disease Prevention Program is an initiative funded by California citrus growers and administered by the California Department of Food and Agriculture dedicated to combating serious pests and diseases that threaten the state's citrus trees.

Pests & Diseases - Huanglongbing (HLB)/Citrus Greening Disease Information
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Plant Industry.

Plant Disease Alert: Citrus Greening Disease and Asian Citrus Psyllid (PDF | 148 KB)
Nevada Department of Agriculture.
See also: New Disease Alerts for more resources


Asian Citrus Pysllid Distribution and Management
University of California. Agriculture and Natural Resources.
Provides information to both growers and home gardeners, in two distinct sub-sites -- to get the basics on the insect and the disease it can vector, how to inspect your trees, how to treat your tree if you find ACP, critical things to do to help contain the insect population and deal with Huanglongbing (HLB), as well as additional information more specific to California.

Citrus Bacterial Canker Disease and Huanglongbing (Citrus Greening) (2007)
University of California. Agriculture and Natural Resources.
ANR Publication 8218

Disease Identification and Management Series - Citrus Greening
Louisiana State University. AgCenter Research and Extension.
Publication 3359
See also: Plant Diagnostic Center - Publications for more resources

EDIS Topic - Citrus Greening (Huanglongbing)
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Extension.
Electronic Data Information Source - publication resources

Huanglongbing (HLB or Citrus Greening)
University of California - Riverside. Center for Invasive Species Research.

Pest Notes: Asian Citrus Psyllid and Huanglongbing Disease
University of California. Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program.
See also: Pest Notes are peer-reviewed scientific publications about specific pests or pest management topics, directed at California's home and landscape audiences.

Plant Pathology - Citrus Greening (Huanglongbing)
University of Florida. IFAS. Citrus Research and Education Center.

Radcliffe's IPM World Textbook - Citrus Greening and its Psyllid Vector
University of Minnesota.
University of Minnesota's electronic textbook of Integrated Pest Management, Radcliffe's IPM World Textbook, features contributed chapters by internationally recognized experts.


Citrus Huanglongbing: Understanding the Vector-Pathogen Interaction for Disease Management (Sep 2007)
American Phytopathological Society.


Michaud, J.P. 2004. Natural mortality of Asian citrus psyllid (Homoptera: Psyllidae) in central Florida. Biological Control 29(2):260-269.

Wang, N., and P. Trivedi. 2013. Citrus huanglongbing: a newly relevant disease presents unprecedented challenges. Phytopathology 103(7):652-665.

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Last Modified: Sep 25, 2018
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