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You are here: Home / Microbes / Species Profiles / Beech Bark Disease
Species Profiles

Beech Bark Disease

Beech bark disease - Invasive.org

Scientific name: Neonectria spp. (Cale et al. 2015)

Common name: Beech bark disease (BBD)

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Selected Resources

Native To: Unknown; the fungal pathogens may possibly be native, but the insect vector, Cryptococcus fagisuga, was introduced from Europe (Kasson and Livingston 2009; Gwiazdowski et al. 2006)

Date of U.S. Introduction: First appeared in Canada during the 1890s, and in the U.S. during the 1930s (Gwiazdowski et al. 2006; Houston 1994)

Means of Introduction: The insect vector (C. fagisuga) was introduced accidentally on imported European beech saplings (Gwiazdowski et al. 2006)

Impact: Fungal disease that kills American beech trees after being attacked by the beech scale insect (C. fagisuga) (McCullough et al. 2005)

Current U.S. Distribution: Northeastern U.S. and Great Lakes Region


Selected Resources:

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Gallery of Pests - Beech Bark Disease
Nature Conservancy. Don't Move Firewood.

Global Invasive Species Database - Neonectria faginata (fungus)
IUCN. Species Survival Commission. Invasive Species Specialist Group.

Invaders Factsheet - Beech Bark Disease
Ontario's Invading Species Awareness Program (Canada).

TISI Inventory - Beech Bark Disease Complex
Texas State University System. Texas Invasive Species Institute.

Federal Government

Proceedings of the Beech Bark Disease Symposium (2005)
USDA. FS. Northern Research Station.
Contains invited papers, short contributions, abstracts, and working group summaries from the Beech Bark Disease Symposium in Saranac Lake, NY, June 16-18, 2004. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-331.

Pest Alert - Beech Bark Disease
USDA. FS. Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry.

Forest Health Protection - Beech Bark Disease
USDA. FS. Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry.

Nonnative Species - Beech Bark Disease
DOI. NPS. Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore.

International Government

Forest Invasive Alien Species - Beech Bark Disease
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service.

State Government

Forest Health Notes - Beech Bark Disease (2010; PDF | 834 KB)
Mississippi Forestry Commission.
See also: Forest Health Articles for more diseases

Forest Health - Beech Bark Disease
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.


Is it Beech Bark Disease? (Nov 11, 2016)
Michigan State University Extension.

IPM Scouting in Woody Landscape Plants - Beech Bark Disease
Michigan State University. Integrated Pest Management Program.
See also: IPM Scouting in Woody Landscape Plants for more pests and diseases (Publication E2839)

Beech Scale, A Potential Threat in the Landscape (Jun 2006; PDF | 392 KB)
University of Tennessee Extension.
See also: Entomology and Plant Pathology - Publications and Multimedia Catalog for more resources


Cale, J.A., S.A. Teale, M.T. Johnston, G.L. Boyer, K.A. Perri, and J.D. Castello. 2015. New ecological and physiological dimensions of beech bark disease development in aftermath forests. Forest Ecology and Management 336:99-108.

Gwiazdowski, R.A., R.G. Van Driesche, A. Desnoyers, S. Lyon, S. Wu, N. Kamata, and B.B. Normark. 2006. Possible geographic origin of beech scale, Cryptococcus fagisuga (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae), an invasive pest in North America. Biological Control 39(1):9-18.

Houston, D.R. 1994. Major new tree disease epidemics: beech bark disease. Annual Review of Phytopathology 32:75-87.

Kasson, M.T., and W.H. Livingston. 2009. Spatial distribution of Neonectria species associated with beech bark disease in northern Maine. Mycologia 101(2):190-195.

McCullough, D.G., R.L. Heyd, and J.G. O'Brien. 2005. Biology and Management of Beech Bark Disease (PDF | 2.77 MB). Michigan State University. Extension Bulletin E-2746.

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Last Modified: Jul 07, 2018
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