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You are here: Home / Aquatic Species / Species Profiles / Eurasian Watermilfoil
Aquatic Species
Species Profiles

Eurasian Watermilfoil

Eurasian WatermilfoilScientific name: Myriophyllum spicatum L. (ITIS)

Common name: Eurasian watermilfoil, spiked watermilfoil

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Selected Resources

Native To: Europe, Asia, and North Africa (Eiswerth et al. 2000)

Date of U.S. Introduction: Exact date unknown; between the 1880s and the 1940s (Eiswerth et al. 2000)

Means of Introduction: Unknown, possibly through the aquarium trade or transport of watercraft (Nichols and Shaw 1986)

Impact: Crowds out native species (Smith and Barko 1990)

Current U.S. Distribution:



Selected Resources:

Council or Task Force

Species of Concern Fact Sheet: Eurasian Water Milfoil
Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force.

Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands - Myriophyllum spicatum
California Invasive Plant Council.
In online book: Bossard, C.C., J.M. Randall, and M.C. Hoshovsky (Editors). 2000. Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA

Invasive Plants of Ohio: Fact Sheet 12 - Eurasian Water-milfoil (PDF | 368 KB)
Ohio Invasive Plants Council.
See also: Invasive Plants of Ohio for worst invasive plant species identified in Ohio's natural areas

Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council Invasive Plant Manual - Eurasian Water-milfoil
Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council.

Priority Species: Invasive Milfoils
Washington State Recreation and Conservation Office. Washington Invasive Species Council.

Fact Sheet: Eurasian Watermilfoil (Jan 2014; PDF | 390 KB)
Alberta Invasive Species Council (Canada).
See also: Fact Sheets for more information about individual invasive species, including those listed as "Prohibited Noxious" and "Noxious" under the Alberta Weed Control Act


Alaska Exotic Plants Information Clearinghouse (AKEPIC): Species Biography - Eurasian Watermilfoil (Feb 8, 2011; PDF | 92 KB)
University of Alaska - Anchorage. Alaska Center for Conservation Science.

See also: Non-Native Plant Species List for additional factsheets (species biographies) and species risk assessment reports of non-native species present in Alaska and also non-native species currently not recorded in Alaska (potential invasives).

Invasive Plant Atlas of New England (IPANE) - Eurasian watermilfoil, spiked watermilfoil
University of Georgia. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health.

Invasive Plant Atlas of the MidSouth - Eurasian Watermilfoil
Mississippi State University. Geosystems Research Institute.

Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States - Eurasian Water-milfoil
University of Georgia. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health.

New York Invasive Species Information - Eurasian Watermilfoil
New York Invasive Species Clearinghouse.

NEANS Panel Online Guide - Eurasian Watermilfoil
Northeast Aquatic Nuisance Species Panel.

Texas Invasives Database - Myriophyllum spicatum

The Quiet Invasion: A Guide to Invasive Species of the Galveston Bay Area - Eurasian Watermilfoil
Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, Galveston Bay Estuary Program; Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC).

Invasive Species Compendium - Myriophyllum spicatum
CAB International.

Plantwise Technical Factsheet - Spiked Watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum)
CABI. Plantwise Knowledge Bank.

Global Invasive Species Database - Myriophyllum spicatum (aquatic plant)
IUCN. Species Survival Commission. Invasive Species Specialist Group.

Invaders Factsheet: Eurasian Watermilfoil
Ontario's Invading Species Awareness Program (Canada).

Federal Government

Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database: Fact Sheet - Eurasian Watermilfoil
DOI. USGS. Wetland and Aquatic Research Center.
Provides distribution maps and collection information (State and County).

U.S. National Plant Germplasm System - Myriophyllum spicatum
USDA. ARS. National Genetic Resources Program. GRIN-Global.

PLANTS Database - Eurasian Watermilfoil
USDA. NRCS. National Plant Data Center.

National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS): Chesapeake Bay Introduced Species Database - Myriophyllum spicatum
Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Environmental Research Center. Marine Invasions Research Lab.

International Government

Weeds in Australia - Eurasian Water Milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum)
Australian Government. Department of the Environment and Energy.

NSW WeedWise: Eurasian water milfoil
New South Wales Department of Primary Industries (Australia).

Invasive Plants: Prohibited Invasive Plants - Eurasian Water Milfoil
Queensland Business and Industry Portal (Australia).

State Government

Noxious Weed Species - Eurasian Watermilfoil
Colorado Department of Agriculture. Conservation Services Division. Noxious Weed Program.

Environmental Fact Sheet: Eurasian Milfoil (2010; PDF | 374 KB)
New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services.
See also: Exotic Species Program - Publications for more resources

Invasive Plants in Pennsylvania: Eurasian Water-milfoil (PDF | 105 KB)
Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources.
See also: Invasive Plant Fact Sheets for plant species (trees, shrubs, vines, herbs and aquatic plants) that have impacted the state's natural lands

Class B Noxious Weed: Eurasian Watermilfoil
Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board.

Eurasian Water Milfoil
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.


Plant Profile: Myriophyllum spicatum
University of Florida. IFAS. Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants.

Maine Invasive Plants Bulletin: Eurasian Milfoil
University of Maine. Cooperative Extension.
See also: Maine Invasive Plants & Entire Series for entire series of 22 fact sheets and invasive plants brochure (available in HTML/PDF or for purchase)

Aquatic Plants and Algae: Eurasian Water Milfoil
Pennsylvania State University. Cooperative Extension.

Invasive Plant Fact Sheet - Eurasian Water-milfoil (Nov 2011; PDF | 138 KB)
University of Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania Flora Project of Morris Arboretum.
See also: Invasive Plant Fact Sheets for additional invasive plants in Pennsylvania

Factsheet: Eurasian Watermilfoil
Pennsylvania State University. Pennsylvania Sea Grant.
See also: Aquatic Invasive Species: Resources for additional species information

AQUAPLANT - Eurasian Watermilfoil
Texas A&M University. AgriLife Extension Service. Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences.

Invasive Species Fact Sheets - Eurasian Watermilfoil
University of Wisconsin Sea Grant Institute.


Noxious Weed Information - Eurasian Watermilfoil
Colorado Weed Management Association.

Maine's Interactive Field Guide to Aquatic Invaders and Their Native Look Alikes - Eurasian Water-Milfoil
Lake Stewards of Maine.
Special Note: Formerly known as the Maine Volunteer Lake Monitoring Program.

Weed Identification - Eurasian Water Milfoil
Montana Weed Control Association.


Eiswerth, M.E., S.G. Donaldson, and W.S. Johnson. 2000. Potential environmental impacts and economic damages of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) in western Nevada and northeastern California. Weed Technology 14(3):511-518.

Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Myriophyllum spicatum. [Accessed Sep 10, 2014].

Nichols, S.A., and B.H. Shaw. 1986. Ecological life histories of the three aquatic nuisance plants, Myriophyllum spicatum, Potamogeton crispus and Elodea canadensis. Hydrobiologia 131(1):3-21.

Smith C.G., and J.W. Barko. 1990. Ecology of Eurasian watermilfoil (PDF | 1.1 MB). Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 28:55-64.

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Last Modified: Aug 25, 2018
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