vexillum Kott, 2002 (Stefaniak et al. 2009)
Common names: Sea squirt, ascidian, colonial tunicate, compound sea squirt, carpet sea squirt
Native To: Unknown, possibly Japan (Lambert 2009)
Date of U.S. Introduction:
First confirmed sighting in 1993 (Lambert 2009)
Identification of this species has been problematic. For more information,
Means of Introduction: Introductions
likely due to shipping (either via hull or sea
chest fouling) (Lambert 2009)
Impact: Forms dense colonies that can smother native species (Bullard et al. 2007)
Current U.S. Distribution: Coastal New England, Coastal Pacific Northwest
Rhode Island Marine & Estuarine Invasive Species Site - Didemnum Tunicate
Narragansett Bay Research Reserve. Coastal Training Program.
NEANS Panel Online Guide - Sea Squirt
Northeast Aquatic Nuisance Species Panel.
The Exotics Guide: Non-native Marine Species of the North American Pacific Coast (Revised Sep 2011) - Didemnum sp. A
San Francisco Estuary Institute; Center for Research on Aquatic Bioinvasions.
TISI Inventory - Colonial Tunicate / Sea Squirt
Texas State University System. Texas Invasive Species Institute.
Invasive Species Compendium - Didemnum vexillum
Global Invasive Species Database - Didemnum spp. (tunicate)
IUCN. Species Survival Commission. Invasive Species Specialist Group.
Marine Nuisance Species - Species Didemnum vexillum
Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center.
National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS) - Didemnum vexillum
Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Environmental Research Center. Marine Invasions Research Lab.
Marine Pests - Invasive Exotic Colonial Sea Squirt
New South Wales Department of Primary Industries (Australia).
Invasive Species - Didemnum Tunicate (Didemnum vexillum)
Alaska Department of Fish and Game.
Aquatic Invasive Species: Invasive Tunicate Species Management Program
Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.
Introduced Species Summary Project - Sea Squirt
Columbia University. Center for Environmental Research and Conservation.
Tunicate Identification Card: Colonial Tunicate
and Club Tunicate (PDF | 1.6 MB)
University of Washington. Washington Sea Grant Program.
Tunicate in Washington State
Reef Environmental Education Foundation.
Bullard, S.G., G. Lambert, M.R. Carman, J. Byrnes, R.B. Whitlatch, G. Ruiz, R.J. Miller, L. Harris, P.C. Valentine, J.S. Collie, J. Pederson, D.C. McNaught, A.N. Cohen, R.G. Asch, J. Dijkstra, and K. Heinonen. 2007. The colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. A: Current distribution, basic biology and potential threat to marine communities of the northeast and west coasts of North America. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 342(1):99-108.
Lambert, G. 2009. Adventures of a sea squirt sleuth: unraveling the identity of Didemnum vexillum, a global ascidian invader. Aquatic Invasions 4(1):5-28.
Stefaniak, L., G. Lambert, A. Gittenberger, H. Zhang, S. Lin, and R.B. Whitlatch. 2009. Genetic conspecificity of the worldwide populations of Didemnum vexillum Kott, 2002. Aquatic Invasions 4(1):29-44.