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Species Profiles

Species not Established in the U.S.

The following species of concern represent examples of why we must increase our efforts in early detection and rapid response and to prevention of new introductions. See Manager's Tool Kit - Early Detection and Rapid Response: Species not Established in the U.S. for general resources and other species information.

This information is provided as an educational tool and is not inclusive of all invasive animal species not yet established in the U.S.

Asian gypsy moth - Invasive.org

Scientific name: Lymantria dispar asiatica Vnukovskij, Lymantria dispar japonica (Motschulsky), Lymantria albescens Hori and Umeno, Lymantria umbrosa (Butler), and Lymantria postalba Inoue (APHIS 2015)

Common name: Asian gypsy moth

Native To: Russia (Lee and Pemberton 2010)

Date of U.S. Introduction: First discovered in the Pacific Northwest in the 1991 (APHIS 2015)

Means of Introduction: From infested cargo in ships (APHIS 2015)

Impact: Eradicated in North Carolina and Washington. It is a voracious pest of trees that poses a major threat to forest habitats in North America. (APHIS 2015)


Plant Pests and Diseases Program: Insects - Gypsy Moth
USDA. APHIS. Plant Protection and Quarantine.

Forest Disturbance Processes - Asian Gypsy Moth
USDA. FS. Northern Research Station.

Gallery of Pests - Asian Gypsy Moth
Nature Conservancy. Don't Move Firewood.

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Nun moth - Invasive.org

Scientific name: Lymantria monacha (Linnaeus) (CABI)

Common name: Nun moth

Native To: Eurasia (Keena 2003)

Date of U.S. Introduction: n/a

Means of Introduction: Could invade the U.S. through commerce, particularly on containers, pallets, and ships (Keena 2003)

Impact: Feeds on conifers. Its establishment in this country would be disastrous because it feeds on a variety of vegetation and can migrate and colonize a variety of sites. (Keena 2003)


Forest Disturbance Processes - Nun Moth
USDA. FS. Northern Research Station.

Gallery of Pests - Eurasian Nun Moth
Nature Conservancy. Don't Move Firewood.

Invasive Species Compendium - Lymantria monacha
CAB International.

Forecasting Invasion Risks: Factsheets - Nun Moth (Feb 2010; PDF | 1.7 MB)
Michigan State University. Integrated Pest Management Program.
See also: Forecasting Invasion Risks for more factsheets

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Screwworm larva - USDA, ARS

Scientific name: Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (ITIS; name is valid but unverified)

Common name: Screwworm

Native To: South America and the Caribbean (CFSPH 2012)

Date of U.S. Introduction: Eradicated in the U.S. in 1966 (ARS 1992)

Means of Introduction: Could be reintroduced to the U.S. from an infested animal (CFSPH 2006)

Impact: Parasite that kills livestock and wildlife, particularly cattle (CFSPH 2006)


USDA Agencies Work Together to Eradicate an Old Foe: the Screwworm (Jan 9, 2018)
USDA. Blog.

Sterile Fly Release Programs - Screwworm
USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

Screwworm Eradication Program Records
USDA. National Agricultural Library.

Animal Disease Information - Screwworm Myiasis
Iowa State University. Center for Food Security and Public Health.

Invasive Species Compendium - Cochliomyia hominivorax
CAB International.

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Siberian moth - Invasive.org

Scientific name: Dendrolimus sibiricus Tschetverikov (APHIS 2011)

Common name: Siberian moth

Native To: Russia (McBride 2000)

Date of U.S. Introduction: n/a

Means of Introduction: Associated with the trade of coniferous plants (Kirichenko et al. 2008)

Impact: Could damage conifer forests. Its potential for defoliation has to be considered at least comparable to that of the gypsy moth in deciduous forests, but its environmental impact would likely be much more severe. The biology of the Siberian moth is unusual and complex, and it has been difficult to control in its native habitat. There are no known introductions of the Siberian moth to North America. (McBride 2000)


Invasive Species Compendium - Dendrolimus superans sibiricus
CAB International.

Forest Pest Species Profile - Dendrolimus sibiricus (Nov 2007; PDF | 1.11 MB)
UN. Food and Agriculture Organization.
See also: Forest Pest Species Profiles for more fact sheets

Siberian Moth: Potential New Pest (1997)
USDA. FS. Northeastern Forest Experiment Station.

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Tropical bont tick - FAO

Scientific name: Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricius, 1794) (CABI)

Common name: Tropical bont tick

Native To: Sub-Saharan Africa (CFSPH 2009)

Date of U.S. Introduction: n/a

Means of Introduction: Introduced to the Caribbean in 1800s from infected cattle from Africa. Could be introduced to Florida from the Caribbean by migratory birds. (Barré et al. 1995)

Impact: Spreads fatal livestock and wildlife diseases. It infests cattle, sheep and goats, reducing meat and milk production on the islands. (CFSPH 2009)


Invasive Species Compendium - Amblyomma variegatum
CAB International.

Animal Disease Information - Amblyomma variegatum
Iowa State University. Center for Food Security and Public Health.

EDIS - Tropical Bont Tick
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Extension.
Electronic Data Information Source Publication #ENY518


APHIS. 2011. New Pest Response Guidelines: Dendrolimus Pine Moths (PDF | 2.68 MB). Riverdale, Md.: USDA, APHIS Emergency and Domestic Programs.

APHIS. 2015. Asian Gypsy Moth (PDF | 62 KB) (Factsheet 81-35-027). USDA, APHIS Plant Protection and Quarantine.

ARS. 1992. Subduing the screwworm. Agricultural Research.

Barré N., G. Garris, and E. Camus. 1995. Propagation of the tick Amblyomma variegatum in the Caribbean. Review of Science and Technology 14(3):841-55.

CABI. Invasive Species Compendium. Amblyomma variegatum. CAB International. [Accessed Mar 7, 2015].

CABI. Invasive Species Compendium. Lymantria monacha. CAB International. [Accessed Mar 5, 2015].

Center for Food Security and Public Health. 2006. Fast Facts: Screwworm (PDF | 95 KB). Iowa State University.

Center for Food Security and Public Health. 2012. Screwworm Myiasis (PDF | 252 KB). Iowa State University.

Center for Food Security and Public Health. 2009. Amblyomma variegatum: Tropical Bont Tick, Tropical African Bont Tick (PDF | 138 KB). Iowa State University.

Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Cochliomyia hominivorax. [Accessed Mar 5, 2015].

Keena M.A. 2003. Survival and development of Lymantria monacha (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) on North American and introduced Eurasian tree species. Journal of Economic Entomology 96(1):43-52.

Kirichenko, N.I., J. Flament, Y.N. Baranchikov, and J.C. Grégoire. 2008. Native and exotic coniferous species in Europe – possible host plants for the potentially invasive Siberian moth, Dendrolimus sibiricus Tschtv. (Lepidoptera, Lasiocampidae). Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 38(2):259-263.

Lee, J.H. and R.W. Pemberton. 2010. Parasitoid complex of the Asian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) in Primorye Territory, Russian Far East. Biocontrol Science and Technology 20(2):197-211.

McBride, J. 2000. Fending off Siberian moths. Agricultural Research 48(4):20.

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Last Modified: Jul 23, 2018
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