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You are here: Home / Plants / Species Profiles / Yellow Toadflax
Species Profiles

Yellow Toadflax

Yellow ToadflaxScientific name: Linaria vulgaris Mill. (ITIS)

Common names: Yellow toadflax, Butter and eggs, wild snapdragon, common toadflax, ramsted, flaxweed, Jacob's ladder

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Selected Resources

Native To: Eurasia (Zouhar 2003)

Date of U.S. Introduction: Late 1600s (Zouhar 2003)

Means of Introduction: Introduced as an ornamental and medicinal plant (Zouhar 2003)

Impact: Crowds out native species (Zouhar 2003)

Current U.S. Distribution:


Selected Resources:

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Fact Sheet: Yellow Toadflax (Jan 2014; PDF | 448 KB)
Alberta Invasive Plants Council (Canada).


Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States - Yellow Toadflax
University of Georgia. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health.

Global Invasive Species Database - Linaria vulgaris (herb)
World Conservation Union. Invasive Species Specialist Group.


Linaria vulgaris P. Mill.(Yellow Toadflax) - Noxious and Nuisance Plant Management Information System (PMIS)
DOD. USACE. Engineer Research and Development Center. Environmental Laboratory.

Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) - Linaria vulgaris
USDA. ARS. National Genetic Resources Program.

Fire Effects Information System (FEIS) - Linaria spp.
USDA. FS. Rocky Mountain Research Station. Fire Sciences Laboratory.

PLANTS Database - Butter and Eggs
USDA. NRCS. National Plant Data Center.

Guide to Weeds in British Columbia - Yellow Toadflax
British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture Food and Fisheries (Canada).


EncycloWeedia: Data Sheet - Linaria genus
California Department of Food and Agriculture.
Included on California's noxious weed list; see Encycloweedia: Program Details for additional resources.

Yellow Toadflax Identification and Management (Feb 2008; PDF | 899 KB)
Colorado Department of Agriculture. Conservation Services Division.

Yellow Toadflax - Best Management Practices Weed Profile (PDF | 198 KB)
Colorado State Parks.

Yellow-Toadflax: Options for Control (PDF | 573 KB)
Lincoln County Noxious Weed Control Board (Washington).


Yellow toadflax - Invasive Plant Species of Alaska (PDF | 153 KB)
University of Alaska - Anchorage. Alaska Natural Heritage Program.

Weed Control in Natural Areas in the Western United States: Yellow Toadflax (2013; PDF | 206 KB)
University of California. Weed Research and Information Center.

Yellow Toadflax - Weed Factsheet
New Mexico State University.

Dalmatian Toadflax and Yellow Toadflax: Identification and Control (PDF | 199 KB)
North Dakota State University. Extension Service.

Ohio Perennial & Biennial Weed Guide - Yellow Toadflax
Ohio State University. Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center.

Invasive Species Management in South Dakota - Yellow and Dalmatian Toadflax (Feb 2007; PDF | 419 KB)
South Dakota State University.


Yellow Toadflax
Colorado Weed Management Association.

Biology and Biological Control of Dalmatian and Yellow Toadflax (2005; PDF | 3 MB)

Weed Identification - Yellow Toadflax
Montana Weed Control Association.


Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Linaria vulgaris. [Accessed Mar 22, 2015].

Zouhar, K. 2003. Linaria spp. In: Fire Effects Information System. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory.

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Last Modified: Oct 01, 2015
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