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You are here: Home / Plants / Species Profiles / Yellow Toadflax
Species Profiles

Yellow Toadflax

Yellow ToadflaxScientific name: Linaria vulgaris Mill. (ITIS)

Common names: Yellow toadflax, Butter and eggs, wild snapdragon, common toadflax, ramsted, flaxweed, Jacob's ladder

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Selected Resources

Native To: Eurasia (Zouhar 2003)

Date of U.S. Introduction: Late 1600s (Zouhar 2003)

Means of Introduction: Introduced as an ornamental and medicinal plant (Zouhar 2003)

Impact: Crowds out native species (Zouhar 2003)

Current U.S. Distribution:


Selected Resources:

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Council or Task Force

Fact Sheet: Yellow Toadflax (Jan 2014; PDF | 448 KB)
Alberta Invasive Species Council (Canada).
See also: Fact Sheets for more information about individual invasive species, including those listed as "Prohibited Noxious" and "Noxious" under the Alberta Weed Control Act


Alaska Exotic Plants Information Clearinghouse (AKEPIC): Species Biography - Yellow Toadflax (Mar 19, 2011; PDF | 412 KB)
University of Alaska - Anchorage. Alaska Center for Conservation Science.
See also: Non-Native Plant Species List for additional factsheets (species biographies) and species risk assessment reports of non-native species present in Alaska and also non-native species currently not recorded in Alaska (potential invasives).

Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States - Yellow Toadflax
University of Georgia. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health.

Global Invasive Species Database - Linaria vulgaris (herb)
IUCN. Species Survival Commission. Invasive Species Specialist Group.

Federal Government

U.S. National Plant Germplasm System - Linaria vulgaris
USDA. ARS. National Genetic Resources Program. GRIN-Global.

Fire Effects Information System (FEIS) - Linaria spp.
USDA. FS. Rocky Mountain Research Station. Fire Sciences Laboratory.

PLANTS Database - Butter and Eggs
USDA. NRCS. National Plant Data Center.

State Government

Encycloweedia: Data Sheet - Linaria genus
California Department of Food and Agriculture.
Included on California's noxious weed list; see Encycloweedia: Program Details for additional resources.

Noxious Weed Species - Yellow & Hybrid Toadflax
Colorado Department of Agriculture. Conservation Services Division. Noxious Weed Program.

Yellow-Toadflax: Options for Control (PDF | 573 KB)
Lincoln County Noxious Weed Control Board (Washington).


Weed Control in Natural Areas in the Western United States: Yellow Toadflax (2013; PDF | 206 KB)
University of California. Weed Research and Information Center.

Biology and Management of the Toadflaxes
Colorado State University. Extension.

Yellow Toadflax - Weed Factsheet (PDF | 160 KB)
New Mexico State University.

Dalmatian Toadflax and Yellow Toadflax: Identification and Control (PDF | 199 KB)
North Dakota State University. Extension Service.

Ohio Perennial & Biennial Weed Guide - Yellow Toadflax
Ohio State University. Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center.

Invasive Species Management in South Dakota - Yellow and Dalmatian Toadflax (Feb 2007; PDF | 419 KB)
South Dakota State University.


Noxious Weed Information - Yellow Toadflax (B List)
Colorado Weed Management Association.

Biology and Biological Control of Dalmatian and Yellow Toadflax (2005; PDF | 3 MB)

Weed Identification - Yellow Toadflax
Montana Weed Control Association.


Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Linaria vulgaris. [Accessed Mar 22, 2015].

Zouhar, K. 2003. Linaria spp. In: Fire Effects Information System. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory.

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Last Modified: Sep 29, 2016
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