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You are here: Home / Plants / Species Profiles / Tree-of-Heaven
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Species Profiles

Tree-of-Heaven

Tree-of-HeavenScientific name: Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle

Common names: Tree-of-heaven, China-sumac, varnishtree

Click image to enlarge

Native To: China (Fryer 2010)

Date of U.S. Introduction: Late 1700s (Fryer 2010)

Means of Introduction: Ornamental (Fryer 2010)

Impacts: Crowds out native species; damages pavement and building foundations in urban areas (Fryer 2010)

Current U.S. Distribution:

Images:

Video:

Selected Internet Resources:

Federal Government

Ailanthus altissima
Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
Taxonomy

Exotic Weeds II (Tree of Heaven) - Integrated Pest Management Manual
DOI. National Park Service.
Identification/Description; Impacts; Life Cycle; Dispersion; Controls; Special Note: Excellent references section

Tree of Heaven - Plant Invaders of Mid-Atlantic Natural Areas (2002)
DOI. National Park Service and Fish and Wildlife Service.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Distribution; Introduction History; Impacts; Controls

Ailanthus altissima - Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)
USDA. ARS. National Genetic Resources Program.
Taxonomy; Legal Aspects

Ailanthus altissima Article Citation Search - AGRICOLA Database
USDA. National Agricultural Library.
Research; Special Note: NAL Catalog Search (resources)

Ailanthus altissima - Invasive Plants of Asian Origin Established in the United States and Their Natural Enemies (2004; PDF | 688 KB)
USDA. Forest Service.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Photographs; Impacts; Habitat; Controls

Ailanthus altissima - Silvics of North America, Agriculture Handbook 654, Volume 2: Hardwoods
USDA. Forest Service.
Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Controls; Special Note: References

Tree-of-Heaven - Weed of the Week (Mar 19, 2006; PDF | 199 KB)
USDA. FS. Northeastern Area. Forest Health Protection.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Habitat; Distribution; Controls

Ailanthus altissima - Fire Effects Information System (FEIS)
USDA. FS. Rocky Mountain Research Station. Fire Sciences Laboratory.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Photograph; Introduction History; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Controls; Special Note: References

Tree-of-Heaven - A Field Guide for the Identification of Invasive Plants in Southern Forests
USDA. Forest Service. Southern Research Station.; Bugwood Wiki.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Distribution; Controls

PLANTS Database - Tree of Heaven
USDA. NRCS. National Plant Data Center.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Photographs; Illustrations; Distribution; Legal Aspects

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State Government

Tree-of-Heaven Control (PDF | 49 KB)
Maryland Department of Natural Resources. Forest Service.
Identification/Description; Introduction History; Life Cycle; Habitat; Controls

Tree-of-Heaven - Invasive Plants of Ohio
Ohio Department of Natural Resources. Natural Areas and Preserves.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Habitat; Distribution; Controls

Tree-of-heaven
Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Invasive Exotic Plant Tutorial for Natural Lands Managers.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Dispersion; Special Note: Species Management and Control Information

Tree-of-Heaven - Invasive Alien Plants of Virginia (PDF | 85 KB)
Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation. Natural Heritage Program; Virginia Native Plant Society.
Identification/Description; Illustrations; Introduction History; Impacts; Habitat; Distribution; Controls

Control and Utilization of Tree-of-Heaven: A Guide for Virginia Landowners (May 2009; PDF | 2.3 MB)
Virginia Department of Forestry.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Life Cycle; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls

Tree of Heaven (Ailanthus altissima)
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.
Identification/Distribution; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Habitat; Distribution; Control; Special Note: Scientific review and assessment (PDF | 154 KB)

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University/Academic

Ailanthus altissima (Tree-of-heaven, Copal Tree) - Invasive Plant Atlas of New England (IPANE)
University of Connecticut. Ecology and Evolutionary Biology.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls

Tree of Heaven - Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States
University of Georgia. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Distribution

Tree-of-Heaven
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
Identification/Description; Illustrations; Distribution

Ailanthus altissima (Tree of Heaven)
University of Massachusetts - Boston. Biology Department. Conservation New England.
Illustrations; Introduction History; Distribution; Dispersion; Special Note: Animation of the spread of Tree of Heaven across Massachusetts over time

Tree of Heaven - Introduced Species Summary Project
Columbia University. Center for Environmental Research and Conservation.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Photographs; Illustrations; Introduction History; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Controls

Tree-of-Heaven - Ohio Perennial & Biennial Weed Guide
Ohio State University. Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History

Tree-of-Heaven (PDF | 213 KB)
University of Pennsylvania. Morris Arboretum; Delaware River Invasive Plant Partnership.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Illustrations; Introduction History; Impacts; Habitat; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls

Tree-of-Heaven - Fact Sheet: Invasive Weeds
Pennsylvania State University. Cooperative Extension.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Dispersion; Controls

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International

Tree-of-Heaven - Weed Identification
Australian Weeds Committee. Weeds Australia.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Impacts; Distribution

Ailanthus altissima - Invasive Species Compendium
Centre for Agricultural Bioscience International (CABI).
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Photographs; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Controls

Ailanthus altissima (shrub, tree) - ISSG Global Invasive Species Database
World Conservation Union. Invasive Species Specialist Group.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Photographs; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Controls

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Organizations

Tree-of-Heaven - Invasive Exotics (PDF | 599 KB)
Bowman's Hill Wildflower Preserve (Pennsylvania).
Identification/Description; Illustrations; Introduction History; Habitat; Dispersion; Controls

Ailanthus altissima - Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands Book (2000)
California Invasive Plant Council.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Illustrations; Introduction History; Impacts; Distribution; Controls

Ailanthus altissima
Discover Life.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Photographs; Illustrations; Introduction History; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls

Tree-of-Heaven - BioBullies (Western Pennsylvania)
Natural Biodiversity.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Controls

Ailanthus altissima
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Controls

Tree-of-Heaven
Plant Conservation Alliance. Alien Plant Working Group.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls

Ailanthus altissima
Texasinvasives.org.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls; Special Note: References

Tree-of-Heaven - Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council Invasive Plant Manual
Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council.
Identification/Description; Introduction History; Impacts; Life Cycle, Habitat; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls; Special Note: Bibliography

Citations

Fryer, J.L. 2010. Ailanthus altissima. In: Fire Effects Information System. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory.

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Last Modified: Jul 01, 2014
 
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