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You are here: Home / Plants / Species Profiles / Tree-of-Heaven
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Species Profiles

Tree-of-Heaven

Tree-of-HeavenScientific name: Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle (ITIS)

Common names: Tree-of-heaven, China-sumac, varnishtree

Click image to enlarge

Selected Resources

Native To: China (Fryer 2010)

Date of U.S. Introduction: Late 1700s (Fryer 2010)

Means of Introduction: Ornamental (Fryer 2010)

Impacts: Crowds out native species; damages pavement and building foundations in urban areas (Fryer 2010)

Current U.S. Distribution:

  • Invasive Species Maps
    USDA. FS. Northern Research Station.
    Maps are organized for 43 invasive plant species into five categories: trees, shrubs, vines, herbs, and grasses. Select the desired species to view the distribution information for northern states.
  • Early Detection & Distribution Mapping System (EDDMapS) - Tree-of-Heaven
    University of Georgia. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health.
    Provides state, county, point and GIS data. Maps can be downloaded and shared.

Images:

Video:

Selected Resources:

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Council

Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands - Ailanthus altissima
California Invasive Plant Council.
Bossard, C.C., J.M. Randall, and M.C. Hoshovsky (Editors). 2000. Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA

Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council Invasive Plant Manual - Tree-of-Heaven
Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council.

Partnership

Invasive Plant Atlas of New England (IPANE) - Tree-of-heaven, Copal Tree
University of Georgia. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health.

Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States - Tree of Heaven
University of Georgia. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health.

Texas Invasives Database - Ailanthus altissima
TexasInvasives.org.

Invasive Species Compendium - Ailanthus altissima
CAB International.

Tree-of-Heaven
Great Britain Non-Native Species Secretariat.

Global Invasive Species Database - Ailanthus altissima (shrub, tree)
World Conservation Union. Invasive Species Specialist Group.

Government

Ailanthus altissima - Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)
USDA. ARS. National Genetic Resources Program.

Ailanthus altissima - Invasive Plants of Asian Origin Established in the United States and Their Natural Enemies (2004; PDF | 688 KB)
USDA. Forest Service.

Ailanthus altissima - Fire Effects Information System (FEIS)
USDA. FS. Rocky Mountain Research Station. Fire Sciences Laboratory.

PLANTS Database - Tree of Heaven
USDA. NRCS. National Plant Data Center.

Weed Identification Tool - Tree of Heaven
Brisbane City Council (Australia).

State

Tree-of-Heaven Control (PDF | 49 KB)
Maryland Department of Natural Resources. Forest Service.

Tree-of-Heaven
Missouri Department of Conservation.

Invasive Species Leaflet - Ailanthus altissima (Tree-of-Heaven) (2010; PDF | 160 KB)
North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Forest Service.

Common Ohio Trees - Tree-of-Heaven
Ohio Department of Natural Resources. Division of Forestry.

Invasive Plants in Pennsylvania: Tree of Heaven (PDF | 256 KB)
Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources.

Control and Utilization of Tree-of-Heaven: A Guide for Virginia Landowners (May 2009; PDF | 2.3 MB)
Virginia Department of Forestry.

Tree of Heaven (Ailanthus altissima)
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

Class C Noxious Weed: Tree-of-Heaven
Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board.

Academic

Weed Control in Natural Areas in the Western United States: Tree-of-Heaven (2013; PDF | 223 KB)
University of California. Weed Research and Information Center.

Invasive Plant Atlas of the MidSouth - Tree of Heaven
Mississippi State University. GeoResources Institute.

Introduced Species Summary Project - Tree of Heaven
Columbia University. Center for Environmental Research and Conservation.

Ohio Perennial & Biennial Weed Guide - Tree-of-Heaven
Ohio State University. Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center.

Tree-of-Heaven (PDF | 213 KB)
University of Pennsylvania. Morris Arboretum; Delaware River Invasive Plant Partnership.

Tree-of-Heaven - Fact Sheet: Invasive Weeds
Pennsylvania State University. Cooperative Extension.

Management of Invasive Plants in Wisconsin - Tree-of-Heaven (2012; PDF | 729 KB)
University of Wisconsin. Cooperative Extension.

Professional

Tree of Heaven - New Invasive Plants of the Midwest Fact Sheet (PDF | 284 KB)
Midwest Invasive Plant Network.

BioBullies - Tree-of-Heaven
Natural Biodiversity (Western Pennsylvania).

Tree-of-Heaven - Invasive Plants of Ohio (PDF | 306 KB)
Ohio Invasive Plants Council.

Ailanthus altissima
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk.

Tree-of-Heaven
Plant Conservation Alliance. Alien Plant Working Group.

Citations

Fryer, J.L. 2010. Ailanthus altissima. In: Fire Effects Information System. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory.

Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Ailanthus altissima. [Accessed Sep 10, 2014].

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Last Modified: May 01, 2015
 
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