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You are here: Home / Microbes / Species Profiles / White-Nose Syndrome
Species Profiles

White-Nose Syndrome

Little brown bat with fungus on muzzle (White-nose syndrome) -  NY Dept of Envrionmental ConservationScientific name: Fungus, formerly known as Geomyces destructans is now known as Pseudogymnoascus destructans, or Pd. (Minnis and Lindner 2013)

Common name: White-Nose Syndrome

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Selected Resources

Native To: Europe (Leopardi et al. 2015)

Date of U.S. Introduction: First discovered in a cave near Albany, New York in Feb 2006. New York Department of Environmental Conservation biologists documented white-nose syndrome in Jan 2007. (Blehert et al. 2011)

Means of Introduction: Most likely introduced by human activity, possibly by a visitor to a show cave in New York. (Leopardi et al. 2015; Puechmaille et al. 2011)

Impact: Disease of bats causing a population decline of 72 to 88 percent of hibernating species in the northeastern U.S. (Lorch et al. 2012; Puechmaille et al. 2011)

Current U.S. Distribution:



Selected Resources:

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White-Nose Syndrome.org - A Coordinated Response to the Devastating Bat Disease
DOI. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Invasive Species Compendium - White-nose syndrome
CAB International.


Help Us Slow the Spread of White-nose Syndrome (PDF | 856 KB)
USDA. FS. Eastern Region.

White-Nose Syndrome and North Carolina - An Overview (PDF | 374 KB)
DOI. Fish and Wildlife Service.

White-Nose Syndrome Threatens the Survival of Hibernating Bats in North America
DOI. USGS. Fort Collins Science Center.

White-Nose Syndrome (WNS)
DOI. USGS. National Wildlife Health Center.

White-Nose Syndrome
Queensland Department of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry (Australia).

White-Nose Syndrome in Alberta (Jul 2009; PDF | 475 KB)
Alberta Sustainable Resource Development (Canada). Fish and Wildlife.

White-Nose Syndrome
British Columbia Ministry of Environment (Canada). British Columbia Bat Action Team.

White Nose Syndrome in Bats
Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (Canada). Wildlife Management.


Bats and White-nose Syndrome
Arizona Game and Fish Department.

White-Nose Syndrome (Jan 2014; PDF | 1.63 MB)
Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control; Delaware Division of Fish and Wildlife.

White-Nose Syndrome in Bats
Indiana Department of Natural Resources.

White Nose Syndrome
Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife.

White Nose Syndrome in Bats
Michigan Emerging Disease Issues.

White-nose Syndrome and Minnesota's Bats
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources.

White-Nose Syndrome in Virginia
Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries.

White Nose Syndrome of Bats Fact Sheet (Oct 2014)
Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.


White Nose Syndrome Information (PDF | 155 KB)
Indiana State University. Center for North American Bat Research and Conservation.

White-Nose Syndrome: A Deadly Disease of Bats (2012; PDF | 556 KB)
Ohio State University. Extension.


White-nose Syndrome
Bat Conservation International.

White Nose Syndrome Page
National Speleological Society.

White-Nose Syndrome
Western Bat Working Group.

White-nose Syndrome
Bat Conservation Trust (United Kingdom).

Exotic - White Nose Syndrome Fact Sheet (2014; PDF | 192 KB)
Wildlife Health Australia.


Blehert, D.S., J.M. Lorch, A.E. Ballmann, P.M. Cryan, and C.U. Meteyer. 2011. Bat white-nose syndrome in North America (PDF | 1.15 MB). Microbe 6(6):267-273.

Leopardi, S., D. Blake, and S.J. Puechmaille. 2015. White-Nose Syndrome fungus introduced from Europe to North America. Current Biology 25(6):R217-R219.

Lorch, J.M., L.K. Muller, R.E. Russell, M. O'Connor, D.L. Lindner, and D.S. Blehert. 2012. Distribution and environmental persistence of the causative agent of white-nose syndrome, Geomyces destructans, in bat hibernacula of the eastern United States. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 79(4):1293-1301.

Minnis, A.M. and D. L. Lindner. 2013. Phylogenetic evaluation of Geomyces and allies reveals no close relatives of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, comb. nov., in bat hibernacula of eastern North America. Fungal Biology 117(9):638–649.

Puechmaille, S.J., W.F. Frick, T.H. Kunz, P.A. Racey, C.C. Voigt, G. Wibbelt, and E.C. Teeling. 2011. White-nose syndrome: is this emerging disease a threat to European bats? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 26(11):570-576.

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Last Modified: Nov 18, 2015
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