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You are here: Home / Microbes / Species Profiles / Whirling Disease
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Species Profiles

Whirling Disease

Whirling DiseaseScientific name: Myxobolus cerebralis (CABI)

Common name: Whirling disease

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Selected Resources

Native To: Eurasia (Hedrick et al. 1998)

Date of U.S. Introduction: First discovered in Pennsylvania in 1958 (Hedrick et al. 1998)

Means of Introduction: Probably through imported trout (Hedrick et al. 1998)

Impact: Disease of trout and salmon (Hedrick et al. 1998)

Current U.S. Distribution: Western U.S.; Northeastern U.S. (Map)

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Partnership

Invasive Species Compendium - Myxobolus cerebralis
CAB International.

Global Invasive Species Database - Myxobolus cerebralis (micro-organism)
World Conservation Union. Invasive Species Specialist Group.

Government

Whirling Disease - Harmful Aquatic Hitchhikers
Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force. Stop Aquatic Hitchhikers.

Whirling Disease - Myxobolus cerebralis - Aquatic Nuisance Species Research Program (PDF | 333 KB)
DOD. USACE. Engineer Research and Development Center. Environmental Laboratory.

Whirling Disease - Exotic Threats to Yellowstone Fisheries
DOI. NPS. Yellowstone National Park.

Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database - Myxobolus cerebralis
DOI. USGS. Southeast Ecological Science Center.

Whirling Disease - Aquatic Animal Diseases Significant to Australia (PDF | 2.23 MB)
Australian Department of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry.

Disease Strategy Manual - Whirling Disease
Australian Department of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry.

Whirling Disease Fact Sheet
Canadian Food Inspection Agency.

State

Arizona Risk Analysis: Whirling Disease (2012; PDF | 274 KB)
Arizona Game and Fish Department.

Whirling Disease and Colorado's Trout
Colorado Parks and Wildlife.

Aquatic Invasive Species: Whirling Disease (PDF | 94 KB)
Indiana Department of Natural Resources.

Whirling Disease Update Page
Maryland Department of Natural Resources.

Whirling Disease: A Resource Stewardship Challenge
New York State Department of Environmental Conservation.
Introduction History; Impacts

Whirling Disease and Oregon's Trout and Salmon
Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife.

Pest Risk Assessment for Whirling Disease (Myxobolus cerebralis) in Oregon (Feb 2009; PDF | 158 KB)
Oregon Invasive Species Council.

Whirling Disease in Utah
Utah Department of Natural Resources. Division of Wildlife Resources. Fisheries Experiment Station.

Academic

Introduced Species Summary Project - Whirling Disease
Columbia University. Center for Environmental Research and Conservation.

Whirling Disease
Texas State University System. Institute for the Study of Invasive Species.

Professional

Whirling Disease Initiative
National Partnership for the Management of Wild and Native Coldwater Fisheries. Montana Water Center.

What is Whirling Disease? (PDF | 551 KB)
North Central Regional Aquaculture Center.

Whirling Disease
Trout Unlimited.

Citations

CABI. Invasive Species Compendium. Myxobolus cerebralis. CAB International. [Accessed Apr 14, 2015].

Hedrick, R.P., M.A. Adkison, M. El-Matbouli, and E. MacConnell. 1998. Whirling disease: re-emergence among wild trout. Immunological Reviews 166(1):365-376.

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Last Modified: Aug 22, 2015
 
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