Random invasive species images that represents what NISIC does
USDA.gov NAL NISIC Sudden oak death Formosan subterranean termite Yellow star thistle Giant African snail Cactus moth Purple loosestrife
HomeAbout National Invasive Species Information Center (NISIC)News and EventscouncilHelpContact Us
 Search the National Invasive Species Information Center
Search all USDA
Advanced Search
Search Tips
Browse by Geography
United States
Browse by Subject
Aquatic Species
Economic Impacts
Laws and Regulations
Manager's Tool Kit
Resource Library
You are here: Home / Microbes / Species Profiles / Whirling Disease
Species Profiles

Whirling Disease

Whirling DiseaseScientific name: Myxobolus cerebralis (CABI)

Common name: Whirling disease

Click image to enlarge

Selected Resources

Native To: Eurasia (Hedrick et al. 1998)

Date of U.S. Introduction: First discovered in Pennsylvania in 1958 (Hedrick et al. 1998)

Means of Introduction: Probably through imported trout (Hedrick et al. 1998)

Impact: Disease of trout and salmon (Hedrick et al. 1998)

Current U.S. Distribution: Western U.S.; Northeastern U.S. (Map)



Selected Resources:

Back to Top


Invasive Species Compendium - Myxobolus cerebralis
CAB International.

Global Invasive Species Database - Myxobolus cerebralis (micro-organism)
World Conservation Union. Invasive Species Specialist Group.


Whirling Disease - Harmful Aquatic Hitchhikers
Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force. Stop Aquatic Hitchhikers.

Whirling Disease - Myxobolus cerebralis - Aquatic Nuisance Species Research Program (PDF | 333 KB)
DOD. USACE. Engineer Research and Development Center. Environmental Laboratory.

Whirling Disease - Exotic Threats to Yellowstone Fisheries
DOI. NPS. Yellowstone National Park.

Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database - Myxobolus cerebralis
DOI. USGS. Southeast Ecological Science Center.

Whirling Disease - Aquatic Animal Diseases Significant to Australia (PDF | 2.23 MB)
Australian Department of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry.

Disease Strategy Manual - Whirling Disease
Australian Department of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry.

Whirling Disease Fact Sheet
Canadian Food Inspection Agency.


Arizona Risk Analysis: Whirling Disease (2012; PDF | 274 KB)
Arizona Game and Fish Department.

Whirling Disease and Colorado's Trout
Colorado Parks and Wildlife.

Aquatic Invasive Species: Whirling Disease (PDF | 94 KB)
Indiana Department of Natural Resources.

Whirling Disease Update Page
Maryland Department of Natural Resources.

Whirling Disease: A Resource Stewardship Challenge
New York State Department of Environmental Conservation.
Introduction History; Impacts

Whirling Disease and Oregon's Trout and Salmon
Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife.

Pest Risk Assessment for Whirling Disease (Myxobolus cerebralis) in Oregon (Feb 2009; PDF | 158 KB)
Oregon Invasive Species Council.

Whirling Disease in Utah
Utah Department of Natural Resources. Division of Wildlife Resources. Fisheries Experiment Station.


Introduced Species Summary Project - Whirling Disease
Columbia University. Center for Environmental Research and Conservation.

Whirling Disease
Texas State University System. Institute for the Study of Invasive Species.


Whirling Disease Initiative
National Partnership for the Management of Wild and Native Coldwater Fisheries. Montana Water Center.

What is Whirling Disease? (PDF | 551 KB)
North Central Regional Aquaculture Center.

Whirling Disease
Trout Unlimited.


CABI. Invasive Species Compendium. Myxobolus cerebralis. CAB International. [Accessed Apr 14, 2015].

Hedrick, R.P., M.A. Adkison, M. El-Matbouli, and E. MacConnell. 1998. Whirling disease: re-emergence among wild trout. Immunological Reviews 166(1):365-376.

Back to Top
Last Modified: Aug 22, 2015
Bookmark and Share
I Want To
    Read Recent News Articles
    Find Management Plans
    Locate Images
    Find Experts

More ...

    Species Profiles
    Discussion Groups
    Economic Impacts
    Educational Resources
    Image Galleries
    Frequently Asked Questions
    What You Can Do
Media Help
 To view PDF files you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader installed on your computer.

To view Flash files you must  have Macromedia Flash Player installed on your computer.

 NISIC Home | NAL Home | USDA | AgNIC | Agricultural Research Service | Web Policies and Important Links | Site Map
FOIA | Accessibility Statement| Privacy Policy | Non-Discrimination Statement | Information Quality | USA.gov | White House