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You are here: Home / Microbes / Species Profiles / Whirling Disease
Species Profiles

Whirling Disease

Whirling DiseaseScientific name: Myxobolus cerebralis (CABI)

Common name: Whirling disease

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Selected Resources

Native To: Eurasia (Hedrick et al. 1998)

Date of U.S. Introduction: First discovered in Pennsylvania in 1958 (Hedrick et al. 1998)

Means of Introduction: Probably through imported trout (Hedrick et al. 1998)

Impact: Disease of trout and salmon (Hedrick et al. 1998)

Current U.S. Distribution: Western U.S.; Northeastern U.S.

  • Where Does the Whirling Disease Parasite Occur?
    Montana Water Center. Whirling Disease Initiative.
    Provides detection of whirling disease parasite in the U.S. (1956-2007) as well as individual state distribution (updated summer 2009).



Selected Resources:

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Invasive Species Compendium - Myxobolus cerebralis
CAB International.

Global Invasive Species Database - Myxobolus cerebralis (micro-organism)
World Conservation Union. Invasive Species Specialist Group.


Whirling Disease
DOI. NPS. Yellowstone National Park.

Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database - Myxobolus cerebralis
DOI. USGS. Southeast Ecological Science Center.

Aquatic Animal Diseases Significant to Australia: Identification Field Guide, 4th Edition - Whirling Disease (2012; PDF | 2.2 MB)
Australian Department of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry.
See also: Aquatic Animal Diseases Significant to Australia: Identification Field Guide, 4th Edition

Disease Strategy Manual - Whirling Disease
Australian Department of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry.

Whirling Disease Fact Sheet
Canadian Food Inspection Agency.


Arizona Risk Analysis: Whirling Disease (2012; PDF | 274 KB)
Arizona Game and Fish Department.

Whirling Disease and Colorado's Trout
Colorado Parks and Wildlife.

Aquatic Invasive Species: Whirling Disease (PDF | 94 KB)
Indiana Department of Natural Resources.

Whirling Disease Update Page
Maryland Department of Natural Resources.

Whirling Disease: A Resource Stewardship Challenge
New York State Department of Environmental Conservation.
Introduction History; Impacts

Whirling Disease and Oregon's Trout and Salmon
Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife.

Pest Risk Assessment for Whirling Disease (Myxobolus cerebralis) in Oregon (Feb 2009; PDF | 94 KB)
Oregon Invasive Species Council.

Whirling Disease in Utah
Utah Department of Natural Resources. Division of Wildlife Resources. Fisheries Experiment Station.


Introduced Species Summary Project - Whirling Disease
Columbia University. Center for Environmental Research and Conservation.

Whirling Disease
Texas State University System. Institute for the Study of Invasive Species.


Whirling Disease Initiative
Montana Water Center. Whirling Disease Initiative.
Note: The final Cooperative Agreement between the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service and the Montana Water Center for the Whirling Disease Initiative was executed in spring 2006, and will terminate in spring 2009. After that time the Initiative website will continue to be maintained by the Water Center, but the site will not be augmented or updated.

What is Whirling Disease? (PDF | 551 KB)
North Central Regional Aquaculture Center.

Whirling Disease
Trout Unlimited.


CABI. Invasive Species Compendium. Myxobolus cerebralis. CAB International. [Accessed Apr 14, 2015].

Hedrick, R.P., M.A. Adkison, M. El-Matbouli, and E. MacConnell. 1998. Whirling disease: re-emergence among wild trout. Immunological Reviews 166(1):365-376.

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Last Modified: Jan 12, 2016
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