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You are here: Home / Microbes / Species Profiles / West Nile Virus
Species Profiles

West Nile Virus

West Nile VirusScientific name: Flavivirus (Mackenzie et al. 2004)

Common name: West Nile Virus

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Selected Resources

Native To: First discovered in Africa (Campbell et al. 2002)

Date of U.S. Introduction: 1999 (Calisher 2000)

Means of Introduction: Accidental (Calisher 2000)

Impacts: Infects birds and mammals (including humans). West Nile virus is primarily an avian pathogen, and is transmitted among birds by ornithophilic (bird-biting) mosquitoes; including the Asian tiger mosquito and other mosquito species. (Hayes et al. 2005)

Current U.S. Distribution: Most of U.S.

  • Disease Maps - Dynamic Map Viewer
    DOI. United States Geological Survey; DHHS. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
    Maps updated to present. Select data by disease (WN), vector (mosquito), state, and year (includes historical data from 2003).
  • West Nile Virus - Statistics & Maps
    DHHS. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
    Includes final annual and cumulative maps & data from 1999.



Selected Resources:

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Pest Alert: West Nile Virus
North Central Integrated Pest Management Center.

Invasive Species Compendium - West Nile virus
CAB International.

Global Invasive Species Database - West Nile virus (micro-organism)
World Conservation Union. Invasive Species Specialist Group.

West Nile Virus
UN. World Health Organization.


West Nile Virus
DHHS. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
See also: Guidelines & Publications and Related links

Equine West Nile Virus Case Reporting and Surveillance Information
USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

West Nile Virus
DOI. USGS. National Wildlife Health Center.
See also: West Nile Virus Maps


California West Nile Virus Home
California Department of Health Services; California Department of Food and Agriculture; Mosquito and Vector Control Association of California; California Vectorborne Disease Surveillance System.

West Nile Virus
Hawaii State Department of Health.

About West Nile Virus
Michigan Emerging Disease Issues.

West Nile Virus: The Public Health Response
State of Washington. King County Public Health.


Introduced Species Summary Project - West Nile Virus
Columbia University. Center for Environmental Research and Conservation.

West Nile Virus
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.

West Nile Virus
Iowa State University. Center for Food Security and Public Health.

West Nile Virus
Louisiana State University. Extension Disaster Education Network.


Understanding the West Nile Virus
Cleveland Clinic.


Calisher, C.H. 2000. West Nile virus in the New World: appearance, persistence, and adaptation to a new econiche—an opportunity taken. Viral Immunology. Vol. 13 No.4 pp. 411–4.

Campbell, G.L., A.A. Marfin, R.S. Lanciotti, and D.J. Gubler. 2002. West Nile virus. Lancet Infectious Diseases. Vol. 2, No. 9, pp. 519-29.

Hayes E.B, N. Komar, R.S. Nasc, S.P. Montgomery, D.R. O'Leary, G.L. Campbell. 2005. Epidemiology and transmission dynamics of West Nile virus disease (PDF | 6.7 MB). Emerging Infectious Diseases. Vol. 11, No. 8, pp. 1167–73.

Mackenzie, J.S., D.J. Gubler, and L.R. Petersen. 2004. Emerging flaviviruses: the spread and resurgence of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile and dengue viruses. Nature Medicine Vol. 10, pp. S98–S109.

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Last Modified: Sep 24, 2015
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