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You are here: Home / Microbes / Species Profiles / West Nile Virus
Species Profiles

West Nile Virus

West Nile VirusScientific name: Flavivirus

Common name: West Nile Virus

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Native To: First discovered in Africa (National Atlas 2011)

Date of U.S. Introduction: 1999 (National Atlas 2011)

Means of Introduction: Accidental (Calisher 2000)

Impacts: Infects birds and mammals (including humans). West Nile virus is primarily an avian pathogen, and is transmitted among birds by ornithophilic (bird-biting) mosquitoes; including the Asian tiger mosquito and other mosquito species. (Hayes et al. 2005)

Current U.S. Distribution:

  • Most of U.S. (Map)
    DOI. United States Geological Survey.
    Note: Bird, Human, Mosquito, Sentinel and Veterinary options available.



Selected Internet Resources:

Federal Government

West Nile Virus
DHHS. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Taxonomy; Introduction History; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls; Research; Special Note: Guidelines & Publications and Related links

West Nile Virus
DHHS. NIH. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
Identification/Description; Impacts; Distribution; Controls

West Nile Virus Article Citation Search - AGRICOLA Database
USDA. National Agricultural Library.
Research; Special Note: NAL Catalog Search (resources)

West Nile Virus
USDA. NAL. Animal Welfare Information Center.
Special Note: Resources

West Nile Virus
USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.
Distribution; Controls

West Nile Virus
Oregon State University. National Pesticide Information Center.
Published by: Oregon State University; Environmental Protection Agency.
Introduction History; Impacts; Distribution; Controls; Special Note: Resources

West Nile Virus Maps
DOI. USGS. Center for Integration of Natural Disaster Information.
Introduction History; Impacts; Distribution

West Nile Virus
DOI. National Atlas of the United States.

West Nile Virus
DOI. USGS. National Wildlife Health Center.
Introduction History; Distribution; Special Note: Wildlife Affected, West Nile Virus Maps

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State Government

California West Nile Virus Home
California Department of Health Services; California Department of Food and Agriculture; Mosquito and Vector Control Association of California; California Vectorborne Disease Surveillance System.
Identification/Description; Distribution; Controls

West Nile Virus
Hawaii State Department of Health.
Identification/Description; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls

About West Nile Virus
Michigan Emerging Disease Issues.
Identification/Description; Introduction History; Impacts; Distribution; Controls

West Nile Virus: The Public Health Response
State of Washington. King County Public Health.
Identification/Description; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls

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West Nile Virus - Introduced Species Summary Project
Columbia University. Center for Environmental Research and Conservation.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Controls

West Nile Virus
Cornell University Cooperative Extension. New York City.
Impacts; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls

West Nile Virus
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
Identification/Description; Introduction History; Impacts; Dispersion; Controls

West Nile Virus
Iowa State University. Center for Food Security and Public Health.
Introduction History; Impacts; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls; Special Note: Bibliography

West Nile Virus
Louisiana State University. Extension Disaster Education Network.
Impacts; Life Cycle; Controls

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West Nile virus - Invasive Species Compendium
Centre for Agricultural Bioscience International (CABI).
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Photographs; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Controls

West Nile virus (micro-organism) - ISSG Global Invasive Species Database
World Conservation Union. Invasive Species Specialist Group.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Controls

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Understanding the West Nile Virus
Cleveland Clinic.
Identification/Description; Introduction History; Impacts; Controls

West Nile Virus
Yahoo! News.
Species Note: Current news

West Nile Virus

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State Information

State and Local Government West Nile Virus Web Sites
DHHS. CDC. Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases.


Calisher, C.H. 2000. West Nile virus in the New World: appearance, persistence, and adaptation to a new econiche—an opportunity taken. Viral Immunology. Vol. 13 No.4 pp. 411–4.

Hayes E.B, N. Komar, R.S. Nasc, S.P. Montgomery, D.R. O'Leary, G.L. Campbell. 2005. Epidemiology and transmission dynamics of West Nile virus disease (PDF | 6.7 MB). Emerging Infectious Diseases. Vol. 11, No. 8, pp. 1167–73.

National Atlas of the United States. 2011. West Nile Virus. U.S. Department of the Interior.

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Last Modified: Jul 01, 2014
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