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You are here: Home / Microbes / Species Profiles / Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia
Species Profiles

Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia

Viral hemorrhagic septicemia symptomsScientific name: Novirhabdovirus sp. (Family Rhabdoviridae) (Kim and Faisal 2011)

Common names: Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, Egtved virus

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Selected Resources

Native To: First detected in Europe (Warren 2002)

Date of U.S. Introduction: Present in the Great Lakes since 2002 (NPS 2008)

Means of Introduction: Great Lakes strain possibly introduced from ballast water or migratory fishes on the Atlantic coast (NPS 2008)

Impact: Viral disease of fish that infects a wide range of species and can cause large fish kills (NPS 2008)

Current U.S. Distribution: Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River

Federal Order:

  • Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia; Interstate Movement and Import Restrictions on Certain Live Fish (Jan 16, 2015)
    APHIS is withdrawing an interim rule published Sep 9, 2008 that established regulations to restrict the interstate movement and importation into the United States of live fish that are susceptible to viral hemorrhagic septicemia, a highly contagious disease of certain fresh and saltwater fish. APHIS is taking this action after considering the comments they received following the publication of the interim rule, which subsequently delayed the effective date of the interim rule indefinitely.



Selected Resources:

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Texas Invasives Database - Novirhabdovirus sp.

Invasive Species Compendium - Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus
CAB International.


Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia
USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.
See also: USDA Amends Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia-Susceptible Species List (Apr 2008; PDF | 16 KB)

Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database - Novirhabdovirus sp. genotype IV sublineage b
DOI. USGS. Southeast Ecological Science Center.

Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia
DOI. NPS. Apostle Islands National Lakeshore.
See also: Emergency Prevention and Response Plan for Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia (Mar 14, 2008; PDF | 2.08 MB)

Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (VHS) in Various Great Lakes Fish Species
Fisheries and Oceans Canada.


Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia (VHS) - Keep Our Waters Great! Don't Dump Your Bait!
Michigan Department of Natural Resources and Environment.

Fish Diseases: Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia (VHS)
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources.

Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia (VHS) in New York
New York State Department of Environmental Conservation.

Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Fish Virus
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.


Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia
Iowa State University. Center for Food Security and Public Health.

Fish Diseases: Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia (2009; PDF | 2.46 MB)
University of Maryland. Northeastern Regional Aquaculture Center.

Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia (VHS) in the Great Lakes (PDF | 419 KB)
Michigan Sea Grant.

New York Invasive Species Information - Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia
New York Invasive Species Clearinghouse.

Viral hemorrhagic septicemia (PDF | 160 KB)
Pennsylvania State University. Sea Grant.

About Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia (VHS) Virus (Feb 2011; PDF | 871 KB)
University of Washington. Western Regional Aquaculture Center.

VHS in Great Lakes Fish
University of Wisconsin Sea Grant Institute.


A Guide to Integrated Fish Health Management in the Great Lakes Basin: Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia - Chapter 19 (June 2002; PDF | 26 KB)
Great Lakes Fishery Commission.
See also: Table of Contents for complete document.


Kim, R., and M. Faisal. 2011. Emergence and resurgence of the viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (Novirhabdovirus, Rhabdoviridae, Mononegavirales). Journal of Advanced Research 2(1):9-23.

U.S. National Park Service. 2008. Emergency Prevention and Response Plan for Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia (PDF | 2.09 MB). National Park System Units and the Grand Portage Indian Reservation within the Lake Superior Basin. 148 p.

Warren, J.W. 2002. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia (PDF | 26 KB). In: A Guide to Integrated Fish Health Management in the Great Lakes Basin. Great Lakes Fishery Commission.

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Last Modified: Sep 24, 2015
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