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You are here: Home / Microbes / Species Profiles / Thousand Cankers Black Walnut Disease
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Species Profiles

Thousand Cankers Black Walnut Disease

Thousand cankers - Invasive.orgScientific name: Geosmithia morbida

Common name: Thousand cankers black walnut disease

Click image to enlarge

Thousand Cankers Disease (TCD) Survey Guidelines Now Available (March 2013)
USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.
In cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service, APHIS Plant Protection and Quarantine has updated the Thousand Cankers Disease (TCD) Survey Guidelines for 2013 (Mar 2013; PDF | 4.5 MB). TCD results from the combined activity of Geosmithia morbida fungus and the walnut twig beetle (WTB, Pityophthorus juglandis).

Native To: Disease was first detected in the Western U.S.; the disease vector, the walnut twig beetle, is native to the southwestern U.S. and Mexico (Utley et al. 2013)

Date of U.S. Introduction: First observed in the 1990s, but not recognized until 2008 (Utley et al. 2013)

Images: Invasive.org and Google

Videos: Tree Diseases -- includes Thousands Cankers (or click Play button below)

Knoxville News Sentinel - The dangers of Thousand Cankers Disease (or click Play button below)

Means of Introduction: Unknown, but possibly through the transportation of logs and firewood (Randolph et al. 2013)

Impact: Fungal disease of walnut trees (Juglans spp.), particularly the black walnut (Juglans nigra), that is usually lethal within a few years; disease is transmitted by the walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis (Tisserat et al. 2009)

Current U.S. Distribution: Widespread throughout the Western U.S.; first detected in the Eastern U.S. in Aug 2010

Management Plans: Microbes / Thousand Cankers Black Walnut Disease

Selected Internet Resources:

Federal Government

Geosmithia morbida Article Citation Search - AGRICOLA Database
USDA. National Agricultural Library.
Research; Special Note: NAL Catalog Search (resources)

Thousand Cankers Disease
USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.
Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Habitat; Distribution; Dispersion

Thousand Cankers Disease
USDA. FS. National Forest Health Monitoring.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Distribution

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State Government

Thousand Cankers Disease of Walnut Trees: Frequently Asked Questions
City of Boulder (Colorado). Parks and Recreation.
Identification/Description; Introduction History; Impacts; Distribution; Controls

Thousand Cankers Disease - 2010 Georgia Update (Sep 2010; PDF | 889 KB)
Georgia Forestry Commission.
Introduction/Description; Photographs; Impacts; Distribution; Dispersion

Thousand Cankers Disease
Indiana Department of Natural Resources.
Impacts; Distribution; Legal Aspects

Thousand Cankers Disease of Walnut
Kansas Department of Agriculture.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Distribution; Legal Aspects

Thousand Cankers of Black Walnut
Missouri Department of Agriculture. Plant Pest Control Program.
Photographs; Distribution; Legal Aspects

Thousand Cankers Disease of Walnut: Frequently Asked Questions for Missouri (Jun 2010; PDF | 124 KB)
Missouri Department of Conservation. Forest Health Program.
Identification/Description; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Controls

Thousand Cankers Disease
Tennessee Department of Agriculture.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Impacts; Controls; Legal Aspects

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University/Academic

Thousand Cankers Disease: A Red Alert for Walnut
Alabama A&M University and Auburn University. Alabama Cooperative Extension System.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Impacts; Distribution; Dispersion

Thousand Cankers Disease of Walnuts: A New Disease in California (May 2010)
University of California - Davis. Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Life Cycle; Controls

Pest Alert: Walnut Twig Beetle and Thousand Cankers Disease of Black Walnut (PDF | 487 KB)
Colorado State University.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Distribution; Controls

Thousand Cankers Disease / Walnut Twig Beetle
Colorado State University. Department of Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Impacts; Distribution; Controls; Special Note: Powerpoint presentations

Look out for Thousand Cankers Disease in Black Walnut Trees (Feb 2010)
Iowa State University. University Extension.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Dispersion; Controls

Thousand Cankers Disease (Black Walnut Decline) - An Online Guide to Plant Disease Control
Oregon State University. Extension Service.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Habitat; Controls

Forest Health Matters: Thousand Cankers Disease of Walnut
Oregon State University. Extension Service. Master Woodland Managers.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Impacts; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls

Thousand Cankers Disease of Black Walnut: A New Pest May Threaten Texas Walnut Trees (Feb 2010; PDF | 1.46 MB)
Texas A&M University. Texas Forest Service.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Life Cycle; Distribution; Dispersion

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International

 

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Organizations

Thousand Cankers Disease Management in Urban Forestry - Draft (Aug 2009; PDF | 25 KB)
Colorado Tree Coalition.
Distribution; Controls

Geosmithia spp. and Pityophthorus juglandis
North American Plant Protection Organization. Phytosanitary Alert System.
Taxonomy; Impacts; Distribution; Dispersion

Black Walnut Mortality in Colorado Caused by the Walnut Twig Beetle and Thousand Cankers Disease (Aug 2009; PDF | 345 KB)
Plant Management Network. Plant Health Progress.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Impacts; Distribution

Thousand Cankers Disease
Walnut Council.
Identification/Description; Impacts; Controls

Citations

Randolph, K.C., A.K. Rose, C.M. Oswalt, and M.J. Brown. 2013. Status of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) in the eastern United States in light of the discovery of thousand cankers disease. Castanea 78(1):2-14.

Tisserat, N., W. Cranshaw, D. Leatherman, C. Utley, and K. Alexander. 2009. Black walnut mortality in Colorado caused by the walnut twig beetle and thousand cankers disease. Plant Health Progress.

Utley, C., T. Nguyen, T. Roubtsova, M. Coggeshall, T.M. Ford, L.J. Grauke, A.D. Graves, C.A. Leslie, J. McKenna, K. Woeste, M.A. Yaghmour, W. Cranshaw, S.J. Seybold, R.M. Bostock, and N. Tisserat. 2013. Susceptibility of walnut and hickory species to Geosmithia morbida. Plant Disease 97(5):601-607.

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Last Modified: Apr 17, 2014
 
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