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You are here: Home / Microbes / Species Profiles / Soybean Rust
Species Profiles

Soybean Rust

Soybean RustScientific name: Phakopsora pachyrhizi, Phakopsora meibomiae (CABI)

Common name: Soybean rust

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Selected Resources

Native To: P. pachyrhizi first appeared in Asia (Schnepf 2005); P. meibomiae is native to South and Central America and the Caribbean (Frederick et al. 2002)

Date of U.S. Introduction: P. pachyrhizi was first discovered in Hawaii in 1994, and in the continental U.S. in 2004; P. meibomiae was discovered in Puerto Rico in 1976 (Bonde et al. 2006)

Means of Introduction: P. pachyrhizi is thought to have been carried by wind to the U.S. from South America during the 2004 hurricane season (Schnepf 2005)

Impact: Disease of soybean and other legumes; P. pachyrhizi can reduce soybean yields up to 80% (Schnepf 2005); P. meibomiae is less virulent but has a broader host range (CABI)

Current U.S. Distribution:



Selected Resources:

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Pest Alert: Soybean Rust
North Central Integrated Pest Management Center.

Invasive Species Compendium - Phakopsora meibomiae
CAB International.

Invasive Species Compendium - Phakopsora pachyrhizi
CAB International.


Asian Soybean Rust: Background and Issues - CRS Report for Congress (Jan 12, 2005; PDF | 70 KB)
Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.

Invasive and Emerging Fungal Pathogens - Diagnostic Fact Sheets: Asian Soybean Rust
USDA. ARS. Systematic Botany and Mycology Laboratory.

USDA Public Soybean Rust Mapping Web Site
USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

Soybean Rust
USDA. APHIS. Plant Protection and Quarantine.
See also: Strategic Plan to Minimize the Impact of the Introduction and Establishment of Soybean Rust on Soybean Production in the United States (Nov 2004; PDF | 202 KB)

Soybean Rust Economic Assessment
USDA. Economic Research Service.
Note: Webarchive; provides economic background information


Pest Alert: Soybean Rust
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Division of Plant Industry.

Soybean Rust
Minnesota Department of Agriculture.


Asian Soybean Rust in Alabama (Oct 2007; PDF | 349 KB)
Alabama A&M University; Auburn University. Alabama Cooperative Extension System.

Asian Soybean Rust (PDF | 405 KB)
University of Arkansas. Cooperative Extension Service.

Asian Soybean Rust
Purdue University. Plant and Pest Diagnostic Laboratory.

Soybean Rust
University of Missouri. Extension.

Soybean Rust - Soybean Disease Information Note 8
North Carolina State University. Cooperative Extension.
Published by: North Carolina State University Cooperative Extension; University of Georgia Cooperative Extension; Clemson University Cooperative Extension; Virginia Cooperative Extension.

Asian Soybean Rust (PDF | 3.02 MB)
South Dakota State University. Agricultural Experiment Station; Cooperative Extension Service.

Soybean Rust Homepage
University of Tennessee. Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources.

Virginia Asian Soybean Rust
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Department of Plant Pathology, Physiology & Weed Science.


Soybean Rust
American Phytopathological Society. Plant Health Instructor.

Soybean Rust
North Central Soybean Research Program. Soybean Research and Information Initiative.


Bonde, M.R., S.E. Nester, C.N. Austin, C.L. Stone, and R.D. Frederick. 2006. Evaluation of virulence of Phakopsora pachyrhizi and P. meibomiae isolates. Plant Disease 90(6):708-716.

CABI. Invasive Species Compendium. Phakopsora meibomiae. CAB International. [Accessed Apr 12, 2015].

CABI. Invasive Species Compendium. Phakopsora pachyrhizi. CAB International. [Accessed Apr 12, 2015].

Frederick, R.D., C.L. Snyder, G.L. Peterson, and M.R. Bonde. 2002. Polymerase chain reaction assays for the detection and discrimination of the soybean rust pathogens Phakopsora pachyrhizi and P. meibomiae. Phytopathology 92(2):217-227.

Schnepf, R. 2005. Asian Soybean Rust: Background and Issues (PDF | 70 KB) (CRS Report for Congress RL32225). Congressional Research Service.

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Last Modified: Nov 18, 2015
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