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Species Profiles

Species not Established in the U.S.

The following species of concern represent examples of why we must increase our efforts in early detection and rapid response and prevention of new introductions. See Manager's Tool Kit - Early Detection and Rapid Response: Species not Established in the U.S. for general resources and other species information.

This information is provided as an educational tool and is not inclusive of all invasive microbial species not yet established in the U.S.

Alder dieback - Invasive.org

Scientific name: Phytophthora alni Brasier and Kirk (Brasier et al. 2004)

Common name: Alder dieback

Native To: First identified in Europe (Aguayo et al. 2013)

Date of U.S. Introduction: n/a


Means of Introduction: European introductions occurred through infected nursery stock (Adams et al. 2008)

Impact: Infects and kills alder trees (trees of the genus Alnus) (Gibbs et al. 1999)


Alder dieback
Nature Conservancy. Don't Move Firewood.

Phytophthora Disease of Alder (PDF | 1.36 MB)
United Kingdom Forestry Commission.

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Chrysanthemum white rust - Invasive.org

Scientific name: Puccinia horiana Henn. (Whipps 1993)

Common name: Chrysanthemum white rust

Native To: Asia (Hernández 2004)

Date of U.S. Introduction: There have been several outbreaks in the U.S., but the disease has been eradicated each time. (Hernández 2004)


Means of Introduction: Potential of this organism to be transported with prohibited articles of chrysanthemum. (APHIS 2008)

Impact: Has become established throughout most of the world. If established in the U.S., chrysanthemum white rust could have significant impact on both greenhouse and outdoor chrysanthemum plants. (Hernández 2004)

Chrysanthemum White Rust
British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture.

Invasive Species Compendium - Puccinia horiana
CAB International.

Chrysanthemum White Rust
USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

Chrysanthemum White Rust
University of Massachusetts Extension. Greenhouse Crops and Floriculture Program.

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Healthy hogs - ARS photo gallery

Scientific name: Family Flaviviridae, genus Pestivirus (Paton et al. 2000)

Common name: Classical swine fever, hog cholera

Native To: Origin unknown; may be native to the U.S. (ARS 1978)

Date of U.S. Introduction: Ohio reported in 1833. Eradicated in the U.S. in 1978 (APHIS 2008)


Means of Introduction: The virus is most often transmitted through the ingestion of contaminated feed or garbage. (APHIS 2008)

Impact: Highly contagious, viral disease of pigs that is usually fatal. The disease is still present in many countries, so there is a risk that it could become established in this country once again. While classical swine fever does not cause foodborne illness in people, economic losses to pork producers would be severe if the disease were to become established again in this country. (APHIS 2008)

Classical Swine Fever (PDF | 40 KB) and Classic Swine Fever Surveillance
USDA. APHIS. Veterinary Services.

Invasive Species Compendium - Classical swine fever
CAB International.

Classical Swine Fever
Iowa State University. Center for Food Security and Public Health.

Classical Swine Fever
Louisiana State University. Extension Disaster Education Network.

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Research personnel examing animal for foot and mouth disease - USDA

Scientific name: Family Picornaviridae, genus Aphthovirus (Belsham 1993)

Common name: Foot and mouth disease, hoof-and-mouth disease

Native To: First observed in 1514 in Italy (AVMA 2007)

Date of U.S. Introduction: Nine Outbreaks of foot and mouth disease occurred in the U.S. between 1905 and 1929. It is widespread through the world, but it was eradicated from the U.S. in 1929. (Segarra and Rawson 2001)


Means of Introduction: Contact with infected animals (CFSPH 2007); eating infected meat (Segarra and Rawson 2001)

Impact: Contagious disease of cattle, swine, sheep, goats, deer, and other cloven-hoofed animals. Foot and mouth disease is considered to be the most economically devastating livestock disease in the world, and represents a worst-case scenario for livestock diseases because of the variety of species involved, rapid spread, and difficulty in controlling outbreaks. The 2001 FMD outbreak in Great Britain resulted in the slaughter of more than 6 million animals and an estimated economic loss of 20 billion dollars. (AVMA 2007)

Foot and Mouth Disease (Jul 2013; PDF | 54 KB)
USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Veterinary Services.

Invasive Species Compendium - Foot-and-mouth disease in ruminants
CAB International.

Foot and Mouth Disease
Iowa State University. Center for Food Security and Public Health.


Adams, G.C., M. Catal, L. Trummer, E.M. Hansen, P. Reeser, and J.J. Worrall. 2008. Phytophthora alni subsp. uniformis found in Alaska beneath thinleaf alders. Plant Health Progress.

Aguayo, J., G.C. Adams, F. Halkett, M. Catal, C. Husson, Z.A. Nagy, E.M. Hansen, B. Marcais, and P. Frey. 2013. Strong genetic differentiation between North American and European populations of Phytophthora alni subsp. uniformis. Phytopathology 103(2):190-199.

American Veterinary Medical Association. 2007. Foot and Mouth Disease Backgrounder (PDF | 28 KB).

ARS. 1978. Eradicating hog cholera. Agricultural Research 26(9):8-12.

APHIS. 2008. Chrysanthemum White Rust. USDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

APHIS. 2008. Classical Swine Fever (PDF | 40 KB). USDA, APHIS Veterinary Services. Factsheet.

Belsham, G.J. 1993. Distinctive features of foot-and-mouth disease virus, a member of the picornavirus family; aspects of virus protein synthesis, protein processing and structure. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology 60(3):241-260.

Brasier, C.M., S.A. Kirk, J. Delcan, D.E. Cooke, T. Jung, and W.A. in 't Veld. 2004. Phytophthora alni sp. nov. and its variants: designation of emerging heteroploid hybrid pathogens spreading on Alnus trees. Mycological Research 108(1):1172-1184.

Center for Food Security and Public Health. 2007. Foot and Mouth Disease: Fiebre Aftosa (PDF | 117 KB). Iowa State University. FMD_A2007.

Gibbs, J.N., M.A. Lipscombe and A.J. Peace. 1999. The impact of Phytophthora disease on riparian populations of common alder (Alnus glutinosa) in Southern Britain. European Journal of Forestry 29(1):1-88.

Hernández, J.R. 2004. Chrysanthemum White Rust (Invasive and Emerging Fungal Pathogens  Diagnostic Fact Sheets). USDA, ARS Systematic Mycology and Microbiology Laboratory.

Paton, D.J., A. McGoldrick, I. Greiser-Wilke, S. Parchariyanon, J.-Y. Song, P.P. Liou, T. Stadejek, J.P. Lowings, H. Björklund, and S. Belák. 2000. Genetic typing of classical swine fever virus. Veterinary Microbiology 73(2-3):137-157.

Segarra, A.E. and J.M. Rawson. 2001. Foot and Mouth Disease: A Threat to U.S. Agriculture (PDF | 41 KB) (CRS Report for Congress RS20890). Congressional Research Service.

Whipps, J.M. 1993. A review of white rust (Puccinia horiana Henn.) disease on chrysanthemum and the potential for its biological control with Verticillium lecanii (Zimm.) Viégas. Annals of Applied Biology 122(1):173-187.

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Last Modified: Nov 25, 2015
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