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You are here: Home / Microbes / Species Profiles / Fowlpox
Species Profiles



Scientific name: Avipoxvirus (Pringle 1999)

Common names: Fowlpox, avian pox, canarypox, juncopox, mynahpox, pigeonpox, psittacinepox, quailpox, sparrowpox, starlingpox, turkeypox viruses

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Selected Resources

Native To: Historically occurred worldwide (USGS 1999)

Date of U.S. Introduction: Historically present in the continental U.S.; was first discovered in Hawaii in 1902 (Lebbin et al. 2010; Loope 2010)

Means of Introduction: Probably introduced to Hawaii with imported birds and was spread by introduced mosquito species (Loope 2010)

Impact: Viral disease that infects over 60 species of birds (USGS 1999)

Current U.S. Distribution: Has occurred throughout the U.S.


Selected Resources:

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Invasive Species Compendium - Avipoxvirus
CAB International.

Global Invasive Species Database - Avipoxvirus (micro-organism)
IUCN. Species Survival Commission. Invasive Species Specialist Group.

Fowl Pox - Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals (2008; PDF | 64 KB)
World Organisation for Animal Health.


Avian Pox (Chapter 19) - Field Manual of Wildlife Diseases (PDF | 848 KB)
DOI. National Wildlife Health Center.

Fact Sheet: Avian Pox
DOI. National Wildlife Health Center.


Avian Pox - Michigan Wildlife Disease Manual
Michigan Department of Natural Resources and Environment.

Avian Pox
Pennsylvania Game Commission. Wildlife Disease Reference Library.


Avian Pox in Small Flocks (PDF | 139 KB)
University of Arkansas Research & Extension.

Prevention and Control of Fowl Pox in Backyard Chicken Flocks
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Extension.

Recognizing and Preventing Avian Pox in Small Flocks (Jan 2014; PDF | 457 KB)
University of Maryland Extension.


Fowlpox in Chickens and Turkeys
Merck Veterinary Manual.

Avian Pox: A Disease That Can Affect Any Bird (PDF | 166 KB)
National Wild Turkey Federation.


Lebbin, D.J., M.J. Parr, and G.H. Fenwick. 2010. Avian malaria and pox. In: The American Bird Conservancy Guide to Bird Conservation (pp. 308-309). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Loope, L. 2010. Hawaiian Islands: Invasions. In: D. Simberloff and M. Rejmanek (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Biological Invasions (pp. 309-319). Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press.

Pringle, C.R. 1999. Virus taxonomy – 1999. Archives of Virology 144(2):421-429.

USGS Biological Resources Division. 1999. Avian pox (PDF | 848 KB) In: M. Friend. and J.C. Franson (Eds.), Field Manual of Wildlife Diseases: General Field Procedures and Diseases of Birds (Information and Technology Report 1999-001, pp. 163-170). Washington, D.C.: Department of the Interior.

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Last Modified: May 19, 2016
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