Scientific name: Avipoxvirus
Common names: Fowlpox, avian pox, canarypox, juncopox, mynahpox, pigeonpox, psittacinepox, quailpox, sparrowpox, starlingpox, turkeypox viruses
Native To: Historically occurred worldwide (USGS 1999)
Date of U.S. Introduction: Historically present in the continental U.S.; was first discovered in Hawaii in 1902 (Lebbin et al. 2010; Simberloff and Rejmanek 2010)
Means of Introduction: Probably introduced to Hawaii with imported birds and was spread by introduced mosquito species (Simberloff and Rejmanek 2010)
Impact: Viral disease that infects over 60 species of birds (USGS 1999)
Current U.S. Distribution: Has occurred throughout the U.S.
Invasive Species Compendium - Avipoxvirus
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Avian Pox - Michigan Wildlife Disease Manual
Michigan Department of Natural Resources
Pennsylvania Game Commission. Wildlife Disease Reference Library.
Avian Pox in Small Flocks (PDF | 139 KB)
University of Arkansas Research & Extension.
Prevention and Control of Fowl Pox in Backyard Chicken Flocks
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Extension.
Recognizing and Preventing Avian Pox in Small Flocks (Jan 2014; PDF | 457 KB)
University of Maryland Extension.
Avian Pox - Viral Diseases
Mississippi State University. Cooperative Extension Service.
Fowlpox in Chickens and Turkeys
Merck Veterinary Manual.
Avian Pox: A Disease That Can Affect Any Bird (PDF | 166 KB)
National Wild Turkey Federation.
Lebbin, D.J., M.J. Parr, and G.H. Fenwick. 2010. Avian malaria and pox. In: The American Bird Conservancy Guide to Bird Conservation. University of Chicago Press, p. 308.
Simberloff, D. and M. Rejmanek. 2010. Avian Pox. In: Encyclopedia of Biological Invasions. University of California Press, p. 317.
USGS Biological Resources Division. 1999. Avian Pox (PDF | 848 KB) In: Field Manual of Wildlife Diseases: General Field Procedures and Diseases of Birds. Information and Technology Report 1999-001.