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You are here: Home / Microbes / Species Profiles / Citrus Greening
Species Profiles

Citrus Greening

Citrus greening - Invasive.orgScientific name: Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus

Common name: Citrus greening, Huanglongbing (HLB), yellow shoot disease, yellow dragon disease

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Selected Resources

Native To: Asia (Wang and Trivedi 2013)

Date of U.S. Introduction: The vector, Diaphorina citri, was first discovered in Florida in 1998; the disease was first discovered in Florida in 2005; Louisiana in 2008; South Carolina and Georgia in 2009; California and Texas in 2012 (Michaud 2004; Wang and Trivedi 2013)

Means of Introduction: Possibly through illegally imported plant material (Michaud 2004)

Impact: Bacterial disease that infects citrus trees, where it shortens the lifespan of trees and reduces fruit yield and quality (Wang and Trivedi 2013)

Current U.S. Distribution:




Selected Resources:

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Texas Citrus Greening
Texas Citrus Greening.

Invasive Species Compendium - Citrus huanglongbing (greening) disease
CAB International.

Data Sheets on Quarantine Pests - Citrus greening bacterium (PDF | 52 KB)
European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.


Multi-Agency Response to Devastating Citrus Disease
U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Huanglongbing (Citrus Greening): What ARS Is Doing
USDA. Agricultural Research Service.

Citrus Greening
USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

Hungry Pests: The Threat - Citrus Greening
USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

Hungry Pests: Save Our Citrus
USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

Citrus Pests - Huanglongbing
USDA. APHIS. PPQ. CPHST. Identification Technology Program.
See also: Citrus Resource

Citrus Greening

Citrus Greening (Huanglongbing)
Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries.


Asian Citrus Psyllid (ACP) and Huanglongbing (HLB)
California Department of Food and Agriculture.

Asian Citrus Psyllid and HLB
Los Angeles County Department of Agricultural Commissioner (California)

Huanglongbing (HLB)/Citrus Greening Disease Information
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Plant Industry.

Citrus Greening - Huanglongbing (Yellow Dragon Disease): A New Threat to Florida Citrus
State of Florida. Broward County Parks and Recreation Division. Extension Education.

Nursery Alert: Citrus Greening Disease and Asian Citrus Psyllid (Mar 2009; PDF | 148 KB)
Nevada Department of Agriculture.


Citrus Bacterial Canker Disease and Huanglongbing (Citrus Greening) (2007; PDF | 637 KB) - ANR Publication 8218
University of California. Agriculture and Natural Resources.

Citrus Greening (Huanglongbing), Candidatus Liberibacter africanus, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus and Candidatus Liberibacter americanus
University of California - Riverside. Center for Invasive Species Research.

Citrus Greening (Huanglongbing)
University of Florida. IFAS. Citrus Research and Education Center.

Citrus Greening (Huanglongbing) - Publications
University of Florida. IFAS. Electronic Data Information Source.

Radcliffe's IPM World Textbook - Citrus Greening and its Psyllid Vector
University of Minnesota.
University of Minnesota's electronic textbook of Integrated Pest Management, Radcliffe's IPM World Textbook, featuring contributed chapters by internationally recognized experts.

Citrus Greening Disease (Huanglongbing) (2009; PDF | 39 KB)
Oregon State University. Extension Service.


Citrus Huanglongbing: Understanding the Vector-Pathogen Interaction for Disease Management (Sep 2007)
American Phytopathological Society.

Is a Disease-Carrying Insect Killing Your Citrus Tree?
Citrus Research Board.

Huanglongbing disease of citrus trees - Pest Advisory Leaflet No. 45 (Jun 2005; PDF | 231 KB)
Secretariat of the Pacific Community. Plant Protection Service.


Michaud, J.P. 2004. Natural mortality of Asian citrus psyllid (Homoptera: Psyllidae) in central Florida. Biological Control 29(2):260-269.

Wang, N., and P. Trivedi. 2013. Citrus huanglongbing: a newly relevant disease presents unprecedented challenges. Phytopathology 103(7):652-665.

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Last Modified: May 18, 2016
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