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You are here: Home / Microbes / Species Profiles / Citrus Canker
Species Profiles

Citrus Canker

Citrus canker - Invasive.orgScientific name: Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri

Common name: Citrus canker, Citrus bacterial canker

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Native To: Believed to have originated in Southeast Asia or India (Polek 2007)

Date of U.S. Introduction: First discovered in 1910, but eradicated in 1931; another outbreak was discovered in 1986, and again in 1995 (Dewdney 2009)

Means of Introduction: First arrived in seedlings imported from Japan in 1910 (Dewdney 2009)

Impact: Bacterial disease that infects citrus trees, where it destroys fruit and causes decreased production (APHIS 1997)

Current U.S. Distribution: Central and Southern Florida




  • Citrus Canker (or select Play button below)
    Texas A&M University. Texas AgriLife Extension Service. (YouTube).

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Invasive Species Compendium - Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri
CAB International.

Data Sheets on Quarantine Pests - Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (PDF | 54 KB)
European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

Global Invasive Species Database - Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (micro-organism)
World Conservation Union. Invasive Species Specialist Group.


Citrus Canker
USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

Citrus Pests - Citrus canker
USDA. APHIS. PPQ. CPHST. Identification Technology Program.

Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory - Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri
Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce.

Exotic Pest Alert: Citrus Canker (2012; PDF | 167 KB)
New South Wales Department of Primary Industries (Australia).

Citrus canker
New Zealand Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Biosecurity New Zealand.


Citrus Canker Information
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Plant Industry.


Citrus Bacterial Canker Disease and Huanglongbing (Citrus Greening) (2007; PDF | 637 KB)
University of California. Agriculture and Natural Resources.
ANR Publication 8218

Asiatic Citrus Canker, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri
University of California - Riverside. Center for Invasive Species Research.

Citrus Canker Publications
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.

Citrus Canker
University of Florida. IFAS. Citrus Research and Education Center.


Citrus Canker: The Pathogen and Its Impact (Aug 2002)
American Phytopathological Society.


Dewdney, M. M., P. D. Roberts, J. H. Graham, K. R. Chung, and M. Zekri. 2009. Homeowner Fact Sheet: Citrus Canker (PDF | 687 KB). University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. PP194.

Polek, M., G. Vidalakis, and K. Godfrey. 2007. Citrus Bacterial Canker Disease and Huanglongbing (Citrus Greening) (PDF | 634 KB). University of California. Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Pub. 8218.

USDA. APHIS. 1997. Factsheet: Plant Protection & Quarantine: Citrus Canker (PDF | 10 KB).

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Last Modified: Sep 29, 2015
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