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You are here: Home / Microbes / Species Profiles / Beech Bark Disease
Species Profiles

Beech Bark Disease

Beech bark disease - Invasive.org

Scientific name: Nectria coccinea var. faginata Lohman, Watson, and Ayers

Synonym: Neonectria faginata

Common name: Beech bark disease

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Selected Resources

Native To: Unknown; both the fungus, Nectria coccinea var. faginata, and the insect vector, Cryptococcus fagisuga, are believed to be of exotic origin, but their original native ranges have not been verified (Gwiazdowski et al. 2006; Houston 1994)

Date of U.S. Introduction: Introduced to Canada during the late 1800s, first appeared in the U.S. during the 1930s (McCullough et al. 2005)

Means of Introduction: Introduced accidentally on imported European beech saplings (McCullough et al. 2005)

Impact: Fungal disease that kills American beech trees after being attacked by the beech scale insect (Cryptococcus fagisuga) (McCullough et al. 2005)

Current U.S. Distribution: Northeastern U.S. and Great Lakes Region


Selected Resources:

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Beech Bark Disease
Nature Conservancy. Don't Move Firewood.

Global Invasive Species Database - Neonectria faginata (fungus)
World Conservation Union. Invasive Species Specialist Group.


Proceedings of the Beech Bark Disease Symposium: Jun 16-18, 2004 (2005)
USDA. FS. Northern Research Station.

Pest Alert: Beech Bark Disease (Mar 2012; PDF | 388 KB)
USDA. FS. Northeastern Area.

Beech Bark Disease
USDA. FS. Northeastern Area. Forest Health Protection.

Beech Bark Disease
DOI. NPS. Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore.

Beech Bark Disease
Natural Resources Canada and Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Forest Invasive Alien Species.

Forest Health Care: Beech Bark Disease (PDF | 123 KB)
Toronto Parks, Forestry, and Recreation (Canada). Urban Forestry Services.


Forest Health Notes: Beech Bark Disease (PDF | 834 KB)
Mississippi Forestry Commission. Forest Health Program.

Beech Bark Disease
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

Beech Bark Disease Best Management Practices for Reducing the Movement of the Beech Scale (Jul 2010; PDF | 1.55 MB)
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.


Biology and Management of Beech Bark Disease (Mar 2005; PDF | 2.77 MB)
Michigan State University Extension.

Beech bark disease - IPM Scouting in Woody Landscape Plants (PDF | 339 KB)
Michigan State University. Integrated Pest Management Program.

Beech Scale, A Potential Threat in the Landscape (PDF | 392 KB)
University of Tennessee Extension.



Gwiazdowski, R.A., R.G. Van Driesche, A. Desnoyers, et al. 2006. Possible geographic origin of beech scale, Cryptococcus fagisuga (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae), an invasive pest in North America. Biological Control 39(1):9-18.

Houston, D.R. 1994. Major New Tree Disease Epidemics: Beech Bark Disease. Annual Review of Phytopathology 32:75-87.

McCullough, D.G., R.L. Heyd, and J.G. O'Brien. 2005. Biology and Management of Beech Bark Disease (PDF | 2.77 MB). Michigan State University. Extension Bulletin E-2746.

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Last Modified: Mar 20, 2015
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