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You are here: Home / Microbes / Species Profiles / Beech Bark Disease
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Beech Bark Disease

Beech bark disease - Invasive.orgScientific name: Nectria coccinea var. faginata Lohman, Watson, and Ayers

Synonym: Neonectria faginata

Common name: Beech bark disease

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Native To: Unknown; both the fungus, Nectria coccinea var. faginata, and the insect vector, Cryptococcus fagisuga, are believed to be of exotic origin, but their original native ranges have not been verified (Gwiazdowski et al. 2006) (Houston 1994)

Date of U.S. Introduction: Introduced to Canada during the late 1800s, first appeared in the U.S. during the 1930s (McCullough et al. 2005)

Means of Introduction: Introduced accidentally on imported European beech saplings (McCullough et al. 2005)

Impact: Fungal disease that kills American beech trees after being attacked by the beech scale insect (Cryptococcus fagisuga) (McCullough et al. 2005)

Current U.S. Distribution: Northeastern U.S. and Great Lakes Region

Images:

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Selected Internet Resources:

Federal Government

Beech bark disease Article Citation Search - AGRICOLA Database
USDA. National Agricultural Library.
Research; Special Note: NAL Catalog Search (resources)

Beech Bark Disease - Exotic Pests of Eastern Forests Conference Proceedings (Apr 1997)
USDA. Forest Service.
Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Life Cycle; Distribution; Controls

Beech Bark Disease - Forest Insect and Disease Leaflet 75 (Feb 1983)
USDA. FS. Forest Health Protection.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Distribution; Controls

Proceedings of the Beech Bark Disease Symposium: Jun 16-18, 2004 (2005)
USDA. FS. Northern Research Station.
Introduction History; Impacts; Distribution; Controls

Beech Bark Disease
USDA. FS. Northeastern Area. Forest Health Protection.
Photographs; Impacts

Beech Bark Disease - Forest Insect and Disease Management
USDA. FS. Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Impacts; Life Cycle

Beech Bark Disease Discovered in Shenandoah National Park - Nature Notes (Jan 2008; PDF | 108 KB)
DOI. NPS. Shenandoah National Park.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Distribution

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State Government

American Beech Under Attack from Beech Bark Disease (Feb 26, 2009)
Michigan Department of Natural Resources.
Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Distribution

Beech Bark Disease (BBD)
Ohio Department of Natural Resources. Division of Forestry.
Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Distribution

Beech Bark Disease (Aug 2009; PDF | 107 KB)
Wisconsin Council on Forestry.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Controls

Beech Bark Disease
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Life Cycle; Distribution; Controls

Beech Bark Disease Best Management Practices for Reducing the Movement of the Beech Scale (Jul 2010; PDF | 1.55 MB)
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.
Photographs; Introduction History; Controls

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University/Academic

Biology and Management of Beech Bark Disease (Mar 2005; PDF | 2.77 MB)
Michigan State University Extension.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Life Cycle; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls

Beech bark disease - IPM Scouting in Woody Landscape Plants (PDF | 339 KB)
Michigan State University. Integrated Pest Management Program.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Life Cycle; Controls

Beech Scale, A Potential Threat in the Landscape (PDF | 392 KB)
University of Tennessee Extension.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Life Cycle; Distribution; Controls

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International

Beech bark disease
Natural Resources Canada and Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Forest Invasive Alien Species.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Photographs; Life Cycle; Dispersion

Forest Health Care: Beech Bark Disease (PDF | 123 KB)
Toronto Parks, Forestry, and Recreation (Canada). Urban Forestry Services.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Controls

Neonectria faginata (fungus) - ISSG Global Invasive Species Database
World Conservation Union. Invasive Species Specialist Group.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls

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Organizations

Invader of the Month - Bark Disease Blitzes Beech (Dec 2008)
Maryland Invasive Species Council.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Distribution; Controls

Beech Bark Disease
The Nature Conservancy. Don't Move Firewood.
Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Distribution; Controls

Citations

Gwiazdowski, R.A., R.G. Van Driesche, A. Desnoyers, et al. 2006. Possible geographic origin of beech scale, Cryptococcus fagisuga (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae), an invasive pest in North America. Biological Control 39(1):9-18.

Houston, D.R. 1994. Major New Tree Disease Epidemics: Beech Bark Disease. Annual Review of Phytopathology 32:75-87.

McCullough, D.G., R.L. Heyd, and J.G. O'Brien. 2005. Biology and Management of Beech Bark Disease (PDF | 2.77 MB) Michigan State University. Extension Bulletin E-2746.

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Last Modified: Jul 01, 2014
 
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