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You are here: Home / Microbes / Species Profiles / Beech Bark Disease
Species Profiles

Beech Bark Disease

Beech bark disease - Invasive.org

Scientific name: Neonectria spp. (Cale et al. 2015)

Common name: Beech bark disease

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Selected Resources

Native To: Unknown; the fungal pathogens may possibly be native, but the insect vector, Cryptococcus fagisuga, was introduced from Europe (Kasson and Livingston 2009; Gwiazdowski et al. 2006)

Date of U.S. Introduction: First appeared in Canada during the 1890s, and in the U.S. during the 1930s (Gwiazdowski et al. 2006; Houston 1994)

Means of Introduction: The insect vector (C. fagisuga) was introduced accidentally on imported European beech saplings (Gwiazdowski et al. 2006)

Impact: Fungal disease that kills American beech trees after being attacked by the beech scale insect (C. fagisuga) (McCullough et al. 2005)

Current U.S. Distribution: Northeastern U.S. and Great Lakes Region


Selected Resources:

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Beech Bark Disease
Nature Conservancy. Don't Move Firewood.

Global Invasive Species Database - Neonectria faginata (fungus)
World Conservation Union. Invasive Species Specialist Group.


Proceedings of the Beech Bark Disease Symposium: Jun 16-18, 2004 (2005)
USDA. FS. Northern Research Station.

Pest Alert: Beech Bark Disease (Mar 2012; PDF | 388 KB)
USDA. FS. Northeastern Area.

Beech Bark Disease
USDA. FS. Northeastern Area. Forest Health Protection.

Beech Bark Disease
DOI. NPS. Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore.

Beech Bark Disease
Natural Resources Canada and Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Forest Invasive Alien Species.

Forest Health Care: Beech Bark Disease (PDF | 123 KB)
Toronto Parks, Forestry, and Recreation (Canada). Urban Forestry Services.


Forest Health Notes: Beech Bark Disease (PDF | 834 KB)
Mississippi Forestry Commission. Forest Health Program.

Beech Bark Disease
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

Beech Bark Disease Best Management Practices for Reducing the Movement of the Beech Scale (Jul 2010; PDF | 1.55 MB)
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.


Biology and Management of Beech Bark Disease (Mar 2005; PDF | 2.77 MB)
Michigan State University Extension.

Beech bark disease - IPM Scouting in Woody Landscape Plants (PDF | 339 KB)
Michigan State University. Integrated Pest Management Program.

Beech Scale, A Potential Threat in the Landscape (PDF | 392 KB)
University of Tennessee Extension.



Cale, J.A., S.A. Teale, M.T. Johnston, G.L. Boyer, K.A. Perri, and J.D. Castello. 2015. New ecological and physiological dimensions of beech bark disease development in aftermath forests. Forest Ecology and Management 336:99-108.

Gwiazdowski, R.A., R.G. Van Driesche, A. Desnoyers, S. Lyon, S. Wu, N. Kamata, and B.B. Normark. 2006. Possible geographic origin of beech scale, Cryptococcus fagisuga (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae), an invasive pest in North America. Biological Control 39(1):9-18.

Houston, D.R. 1994. Major new tree disease epidemics: beech bark disease. Annual Review of Phytopathology 32:75-87.

Kasson, M.T., and W.H. Livingston. 2009. Spatial distribution of Neonectria species associated with beech bark disease in northern Maine. Mycologia 101(2):190-195.

McCullough, D.G., R.L. Heyd, and J.G. O'Brien. 2005. Biology and Management of Beech Bark Disease (PDF | 2.77 MB). Michigan State University. Extension Bulletin E-2746.

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Last Modified: Nov 18, 2015
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