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You are here: Home / Laws and Regulations / International Laws and Regulations / Regional Conventions  Printable version
Laws and Regulations
  
International Laws and Regulations

Regional Conventions

Agreement:

Convention for the Establishment of the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization

Participants:

National governments: Restricted to those countries listed in Schedule III of the Convention

U.S. Ratification:

N/A

Dates of Action:

Apr 18, 1951 adopted. Nov 1, 1953 in force

Organisms:

Pests and diseases of plants and plant products, with special attention to:

Colorado beetle; potato root eelworm; San Jose scale; potato wart disease; insect, fungus and rodent pests of stored foods and rodent pests of crops; fall webworm

Pathways:

Not specified

Relevance:

Article V(a)
The functions of the organization shall be: 2) to advise Member Governments on the technical, administrative and legislative measures necessary to prevent the introduction and spread of pests and diseases of plants and plant products

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Agreement:

Plant Protection Agreement for the South East Asia and Pacific Region

Participants:

National governments: Any State situated in the region or any Government which is responsible for the international relations of any territory or territories in the region

U.S. Ratification:

No

Dates of Action:

Feb 27, 1956 adopted. Jul 2, 1956 in force

Organisms:

Destructive pests and diseases not yet established in the Southeast Asia and Pacific Region
SEE APPENDIX A for listings

Particular attention given to South American Leaf Blight of Heava
SEE APPENDIX B

Does NOT include:

  • plants imported for food or analytical, medicinal, or manufacturing purposes
  • seeds of annual, biennial field crops or vegetables, all seeds or cut flowers of annual, biennial, or perennial ornamental plants which are herbaceous
  • processed plant products

Pathways:

Importation of plants, packing and containers accompanying plants, or packing and containers of plant origin from outside the Region

Relevance:

Preamble: The Contracting Governments, desiring to prevent, through concerted action, the introduction into and spread within the South East Asia and Pacific Region of destructive plant diseases and pests, have concluded the following Agreement, which is a supplementary agreement under Article III of the International Plant Protection Convention.

Article III: Measures regarding the importation of Plants from outside the region. For the purpose of preventing the introduction into its territory or territories of destructive diseases and pests, and in particular those listed in Appendix A to this Agreement, each Contracting Government shall use its best endeavours to apply with respect to the importation of any plants, including their packing and containers, and any packing and containers of plant origin, from anywhere outside the Region, such measures of prohibition, certification, inspection, disinfection, disinfestation, quarantine, destruction or other measures as may be recommended by the Committee, taking into consideration the provisions of Articles V and VI of the International Plant Protection Convention.

Article V -- Measures regarding the Movement of Plants within the Region: For the purpose of preventing the spread within the Region of destructive diseases and pests, each Contracting Government shall use its best endeavours to apply, with respect to the importation
into its territory of any plants, including packings and containers, and any packings and containers of plant origin, from another territory within the Region, such measures or prohibition certification, inspection, disinfection, disinfestation, quarantine, destruction or other measures as may be recommended by the Committee, in addition to measures already adopted by each Contracting Government.

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Agreement:

Convention Concerning Fishing in the Waters of the Danube

Participants:

National governments of the Danubian Region

U.S. Ratification:

N/A

Dates of Action:

Jan 29, 1958 adopted. Dec 20, 1958 in force

Organisms:

Fish and other animals

Pathways:

Intentional introductions

Relevance:

Article 10: acclimatisation and breeding of new fish species, other animals and aquatic plants prohibited in Danube waters without consent of Convention Commission.

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Agreement:

Phyto-sanitary Convention for Africa (PDF | 16 KB)

Participants:

National governments belonging to the Organization of African Unity

U.S. Ratification:

N/A

Dates of Action:

1967 adopted. 1974 in force

Organisms:

Plant diseases and insect plant pests

Pathways:

Importation; Packing material

Relevance:

Preamble: Heads of African State and Government of the organization of African Unity: Considering that all possible steps should be taken

(a) to prevent the introduction of diseases, insect pests, and other enemies of plants into any part of Africa;
(b) to eradicate or control them in so far as they are present in the area; and
(c) to prevent their spread to other territories within the area.

Article V: Each Member State shall take such action as may be desirable to deal effectively with diseases, insect pests and other enemies of plants in its territory which the OAU considers have become, or are likely to become, a serious danger within Africa.

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Agreement:

African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (PDF | 46 KB)

Participants:

National governments: Independent African states

U.S. Ratification:

N/A

Dates of Action:

Sep 15, 1968 adopted. Jun 16, 1969 in force

Organisms:

Non-indigenous plants and animals: not specified further

Pathways:

Intentional introduction

Relevance:

Article III (4)(a)(ii) and (b): any act in a strict nature reserve or national park likely to harm or disturb the fauna and flora, including the introduction of zoological or botanical specimens, whether indigenous or imported, wild or domesticated, is to be strictly prohibited.

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Agreement:

Convention on Conservation of Nature in the South Pacific

Participants:

National governments: "all States members of the South Pacific Commission or eligible to be invited to become members of that Commission"

U.S. Ratification:

N/A

Dates of Action:

Jun 12, 1976 adopted. Jun 28, 1990 in force

Organisms:

Not specified ("species not previously occurring therein")

Pathways:

Intentional introductions ("deliberate introduction"): Not specified further

Relevance:

Article V (4): Parties shall carefully consider the consequences of deliberate introduction into ecosystems of species not previously occurring therein.

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Agreement:

Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats

Participants:

National governments: "member States of the Council of Europe and non-member States which have participated in (the Convention's) elaboration and by the European Economic Community"

U.S. Ratification:

N/A

Dates of Action:

Sep 19, 1979 adopted. Jun 1, 1982 in force

Organisms:

"Non-native species"

Pathways:

Not specified

Relevance:

Article 11(2)(b): Each contracting Party undertakes to strictly control the introduction of non-native species.

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Agreement:

Benelux Convention on Nature Conservation and Landscape Protection

Participants:

National governments of Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg

U.S. Ratification:

N/A

Dates of Action:

Jun 8, 1982 adopted. Oct 1, 1983 in force

Organisms:

Not specified

Pathways:

Not specified

Relevance:

N/A

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Agreement:

Protocol Concerning Specially Protected Areas and Biological Diversity in the Mediterranean

Participants:

National governments and regional economic organiations: "any State invited to the Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Protocol concerning Mediterranean Specially Protected Areas" and "any regional economic grouping of which at least one member is a coastal State of the Mediterranean Sea Area"

U.S. Ratification:

N/A

Dates of Action:

1982 adopted. 1986 in force

Organisms:

Not specified: "exotic species"

Pathways:

Intentional introduction: Not specified further

Relevance:

Article 7(e): Parties to progressively take measures to prohibit the introduction of exotic species into marine protected areas.

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Agreement:

ASEAN Agreement on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (PDF | 140 KB)

Participants:

National governments: members of ASEAN

U.S. Ratification:

N/A

Dates of Action:

Jul 9, 1985 adopted. Not yet in force

Organisms:

Not specified: "exotic species"

Pathways:

Not specified

Relevance:

Article 3(3): Parties shall endeavour to regulate and, where necessary, prohibit the introduction of exotic species.

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Agreement:

Protocol for the Conservation and Management of Protected Marine and Coastal Areas of the South East Pacific

Participants:

N/A

U.S. Ratification:

N/A

Dates of Action:

1989 adopted

Organisms:

N/A

Pathways:

N/A

Relevance:

Parties shall take measures to prevent, reduce and control environmental deterioration in marine protected areas including, to the extent possible, the introduction of exotic species of flora and fauna.

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Agreement:

Protocol Concerning Specially Protected Areas Wildlife to the Convention for the Protection and development of the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean Area (PDF | 58 KB)

Participants:

National governments

U.S. Ratification:

N/A

Dates of Action:

1990 adopted

Organisms:

Non-indigenous and genetically altered species

Pathways:

Unintentional and intentional introductions

Relevance:

Articles 5.2 (f) and 12: Each Party to take all appropriate measures to regulate or prohibit the intentional or accidental introduction of non-indigenous or genetically altered species to the wild that may cause harmful impacts to the natural flora, fauna and other features of the wider Caribbean Region.

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Agreement:

Convention for the Conservation of the Biodiversity and the Protection of Wilderness Areas in Central America

Participants:

National governments: Central American states and other states of the Mesoamerican region

U.S. Ratification:

N/A

Dates of Action:

Jun 5, 1992 adopted. Not yet in force

Organisms:

Alien species which endanger Central American ecosystems

Pathways:

Not specified

Relevance:

Article 24: Parties agree that all mechanisms shall be established for the control or eradication of all exotic species which threaten ecosystems, habitats and wild species.

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Agreement:

North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation

Participants:

National governments: U.S., Canada, Mexico

U.S. Ratification:

Yes

Dates of Action:

Sep 14, 1993, adopted Jan 1, 1994 in force

Organisms:

"Exotic" species: not specified further

Pathways:

Not specified

Relevance:

Article 10 (2)(h): the Council of the Commission on Environmental Co-operation may develop recommendations regarding exotic species which may be harmful

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Agreement:

Agreement for the Establishment of the Near East Plant Protection Organization (PDF | 50 KB)

Participants:

National governments: States belonging to Near East Region

U.S. Ratification:

N/A

Dates of Action:

Feb 18, 1993 adopted. Not yet in force

Organisms:

Pests of plants and plant products

Pathways:

Not specified

Relevance:

Article IV (a): promote the implementation of the provisions of the International Plant Protection Convention with particular attention to measures for the control of pests, and advise Governments on the technical, administrative and legislative measures necessary to prevent the introduction and spread of pests of plants and plant products

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Agreement:

Protocol for the Implementation of the Alpine Convention in the Field of Nature Protection and Landscape Conservation

Participants:

N/A

U.S. Ratification:

N/A

Dates of Action:

1994 adopted

Organisms:

N/A

Pathways:

N/A

Relevance:

Article 17: Parties guarantee that species of wild fauna and flora not native to the region in the recorded past are not introduced; exceptions possible when introduction needed for specific use will not "disadvantage" nature and landscape

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Agreement:

Agreement for the Preparation of a Tripartite Environmental Management Programme for Lake Victoria

Participants:

N/A

U.S. Ratification:

N/A

Dates of Action:

1994 adopted. 1994 in force

Organisms:

N/A

Pathways:

N/A

Relevance:

Article 1, Attachment I, para. 7: Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda agree to implement a 5 year programme to strengthen regional environmental management of Lake Victoria including control of water hyacinth; biological control to proceed when environmental risks are found acceptable by national authorities; other forms of control to be explored.

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Agreement:

Convention for the Establishment of the Lake Victoria Fisheries Organization

Participants:

National governments: Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania

U.S. Ratification:

N/A

Dates of Action:

Jun 30, 1994 adopted

Organisms:

Any non-indigenous aquatic animals or plants

Specifically mentioned:
Nile Tilapia, Nile Perch, and water hyacinth

Pathways:

Unintentional or intentional, direct or indirect introductions into Lake Victoria or its tributaries

Relevance:

Article II(3)(f): To consider and advise on the effects of the direct or indirect introduction of any non-indigenous aquatic animals or plants into the waters of Lake Victoria or its tributaries and to adopt measures regarding the introduction, monitoring, control or elimination of any such animals or plants;

Article XII (3): Parties hereby agree to adopt, enforce and maintain in effect laws and regulations prohibiting the introduction of non-indigenous species to Lake Victoria, other than in accordance with a decision of the Council of Ministers pursuant to Article VI.1(m)

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Agreement:

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

Participants:

National governments: U.S., Canada, Mexico

U.S. Ratification:

Yes

Dates of Action:

Jan 1, 1994

Organisms:

Not specified

Pathways:

Not specified

Relevance:

General provisions in Chapter 18, Articles 1802(2) and 1803(1), require the U.S. to publish in advance, proposed measures and to notify its NAFTA trading partners of any proposed ban on imports. Provisions seek to give NAFTA trading partners an opportunity to comment and the U.S. time to take such comments into account, before the measure goes into effect.

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Agreement:

Protocol Concerning Specially Protected Areas and Biological Diversity in the Mediterranean (PDF | 101 KB)

Participants:

N/A

U.S. Ratification:

N/A

Dates of Action:

1995 adopted

Organisms:

N/A

Pathways:

N/A

Relevance:

Articles 6(d) and 13 (l): Parties shall regulate in specially protected areas "the introduction of any species not indigenous to the specially protected areas in question, or of genetically modified species, as well as the introduction or reintroduction of species that are or have been present in the specially protected area, and that Parties shall take all appropriate measures to regulate the intentional or accidental introduction of non-indigenous species or genetically modified species to the wild and prohibit those that may have harmful impacts on the ecosystem, habitats, or species in the protocol area.

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Agreement:

Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds

Participants:

National governments of Range states and regional economic integration organizations with at least one Range state member

U.S. Ratification:

N/A

Dates of Action:

Jun 16, 1995 adopted

Organisms:

Non-native bird species

Pathways:

Intentional introduction; Unintentional release

Relevance:

Article III(2)(g): Parties shall prohibit the deliberate introduction of non-native waterbird species into the environment and take all appropriate measure to prevent the unintentional release of such species if this introduction or release would prejudice the conservation status of wild fauna and flora; when non native waterbird species have already been introduced, the Parties shall take all appropriate measures to prevent these species from becoming a potential threat to indigenous species.

Action Plan §2.5
Parties to prohibit non-native animal and plant introductions if detrimental to listed species, to take precautions to prevent accidental escape of captive non native birds and take measures to ensure that already introduced species do not pose a potential hazard to listed species.

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Agreement:

Protocol concerning Protected Areas and Wild Fauna and Flora in the Eastern African Region

Participants:

National governments: "any State invited as a participant to the Nairobi Conference… and to any regional intergovernmental integration organization invited to the Conference which exercise competence in the field covered by the Convention and having at least one member which belongs to the Eastern African region"

U.S. Ratification:

N/A

Dates of Action:

Jun 21, 1985 adopted. May 30, 1996 in force

Organisms:

"Alien or new species which may cause significant or harmful changes to the Eastern African Region"

Pathways:

Unintentional and intentional introductions

Relevance:

Article 7: Introduction of Alien or New Species - The Contracting Parties shall take all appropriate measures to prohibit the intentional or accidental introduction of alien or new species which may cause significant or harmful changes to the Eastern African region.

Article 10: Protection Measures - The Contracting Parties, taking into account the characteristics of each protected area, shall take, in conformity with international law, the measures required to achieve the objectives of protecting the area, which may include: (f) the regulation of any activity likely to harm or disturb the fauna or flora, including the introduction of non-indigenous animal or plant species

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Agreement:

Council of Europe

Participants:

N/A

U.S. Ratification:

N/A

Dates of Action:

N/A

Organisms:

N/A

Pathways:

N/A

Relevance:

N/A

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Agreement:

EU Council Directive 79/409/EEC of 2.4.79 on the Conservation of Wild Birds (as amended)

Participants:

National governments: Member states of the EC

U.S. Ratification:

N/A

Dates of Action:

Not yet in force

Organisms:

Non-indigenous birds

Pathways:

Not specified

Relevance:

Article 11: Member States shall see that any introduction of species of bird which does not occur naturally in the wild state in the European territory of the Member States does not prejudice the local fauna and flora.

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Agreement:

EU Council Directive 92/43/ELC of 21.5.92 on the Conservation of Natural Habitats and of Wild Fauna and Flora

Participants:

National governments: Member states of the EC

U.S. Ratification:

N/A

Dates of Action:

Not yet in force

Organisms:

"any species which is not native to their territory"

Pathways:

Intentional introductions

Relevance:

Article 22(b):Member States shall ensure that the deliberate introduction into the wild of any species which is not native to their territory is regulated so as not to prejudice natural habitats within their natural range or the wild native fauna and flora and, if they consider it necessary, prohibit such introduction.

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Agreement:

Convention for the Protection of the Natural Resources and Environment of the South Pacific Region (SPREP Convention)

Participants:

National governments: "States which were invited to participate in the Plenipotentiary Meeting of the High Level Conference on the Protection of the Natural Resources and Environment of the South Pacific Region"

U.S. Ratification:

Yes. Jun 10, 1991

Dates of Action:

Nov 24, 1986 adopted. Aug 22, 1990 in force

Organisms:

N/A

Pathways:

N/A

Relevance:

N/A

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Agreement:

Convention on Great Lakes Fisheries Between the United States and Canada (Basic Instrument for the Great Lakes Fisheries Commission-GLFC)

Participants:

U.S. and Canadian National governments

U.S. Ratification:

Yes

Dates of Action:

1954 adopted. 1955 in force

Organisms:

Sea lamprey

Pathways:

Introduction through tributaries to the Great Lakes

Relevance:

The Convention established the GLFC whose purpose is to control and eradicate the non-native, highly invasive Atlantic sea lamprey from the Great Lakes

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Last Modified: Feb 16, 2014
 
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