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You are here: Home / Laws and Regulations / International Laws and Regulations / Organizations and Agreements  Printable version
Laws and Regulations
  
International Laws and Regulations

Organizations and Agreements

Agreement:

Joint U.S./U.K./Russian Statement on Biological Weapons

Participants:

National governments: UK, U.S., and Russian

U.S. Ratification:

N/A

Dates of Action:

1992 adopted

Organisms:

Not mentioned here, but relation to microbial and other biological agents of the 1972 Biological Weapons Conv.

Pathways:

Not specified

Relevance:

The three Governments confirmed their commitment to full compliance with the Biological Weapons Convention

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Agreement:

Agenda 21 UNCED1992

Participants:

National governments

U.S. Ratification:

N/A

Dates of Action:

N/A

Organisms:

Exotic plant and animal species; Diseases and "pests"

Pathways:

Unintentional and intentional introductions and Ballast water specifically mentioned

Relevance:

Chapter 11:Combating Deforestation
11.13(g) - Increase protection of forests from disease and uncontrolled introduction of exotic plant and animal species.

Chapter 12: Managing Fragile Ecosystems -Combating Drought and Desertification
12.18 (b): Accelerate afforestation and reforestation using drought resistant fast growing species, especially native ones.
12.19(b): Develop, test and introduce, with due regard to environmental security considerations, drought resistant fast growing and productive plant species appropriate to the environment of concerned regions.
management

Chapter 15: Conservation of Biological Diversity -
15.3 Acknowledgement that inappropriate introduction of foreign plants and animals has contributed to biodiversity loss and continues.
15.4 (h): Implement mechanisms for sustainable use of biotechnology and safe transfer
15.7(g): Improve international co-ordination for effective conservation and management of non pest migratory species

Chapter 16: Environmentally Sound Management of Biotechnology -
16.3(a): Increase optimal possible yield of major crops, livestock and agricultural species
16.3(c): increase use of integrated pest management techniques
16.23: Biotechnology can be used to study effects exerted by introduced species on organisms within an ecosystem
16.32: Internationally agreed principles on risk assessment and management needed for all aspects of biotechnology

Chapter 17: Protection of Oceans -
17.30(vi): States to assess individually, regionally and internationally, within IMO and other relevant international organizations, need for adopting appropriate rules on ballast water discharge to prevent spread of non-indigenous organisms.
17.79(d) strengthen the legal and regulatory framework for mariculture and aquaculture
17.83 Analyse aquaculuture's potential and apply appropriate safeguards for introducing new species.

Chapter 18-Protection of the Quality and Supply of Freshwater Resources: Application of Integrated Approaches to the Development, management and Use of Water Resources.
18.40(e)(iv): control of noxious aquatic species that may destroy other aquatic species

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Agreement:

World Trade Organization (WTO) - formerly GATT

Participants:

National governments

U.S. Ratification:

Became member on Jan 1, 1995

Dates of Action:

1995

Organisms:

Not specified

Pathways:

Not specified

Relevance:

Annex B indicates that when the U.S. proposes a domestic regulation to restrict an import, the U.S. must provide other WTO members with notice of the products to be covered, (together with a brief explanation of the objective and rationale of the proposed legislation), but only if the proposed U.S. regulation would substantially differ from international standards, guidelines, or recommendations. The provision only applies, however, if the regulation may have a "significant effect" on trade of other WTO members.

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Agreement:

International Maritime Organization

Participants:

National governments

U.S. Ratification:

N/A: non-mandatory guidelines which Member States are urged to adopt voluntarily

Dates of Action:

Nov 27, 1997

Organisms:

Harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens

Pathways:

Ballast water

Relevance:

IMO Assembly Resolution A.868(20)
IMO adopts the Guidelines listed below and "requests governments to take urgent action in applying these Guidelines, including the dissemination thereof to the shipping industry, to use them as a basis for any measures they adopt with a view to minimizing the risks of introducing harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens"

Annex, "Guidelines for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water to Minimize the Transfer of Harmful Aquatic Organisms and Pathogens"
1.1: Recognition of ballast water as the "most prominent" medium for transferring "harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens which may pose threats to indigenous human, animal and plant life, and the marine environment."
7.1.1: "Every ship that carries ballast water should be provided with a ballast water management plan to assist in the minimization of transfer of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens."

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Agreement:

UNCED 1992
Non-Legally binding Authoritative Statement of Principles for a Global Consensus on the Management Conservation and Sustainable Development of all types of Forests

Participants:

National governments

U.S. Ratification:

N/A

Dates of Action:

N/A

Organisms:

Pests and diseases

Does NOT regulate introduced trees

Pathways:

Not specified

Relevance:

Principle 2(b):Take appropriate measures to protect forests against harmful effects of pests and diseases.
6(a):Recognise the potential contribution of indigenous and introduced species to provide wood for fuel and industrial uses.

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Agreement:

Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities

Participants:

National governments

U.S. Ratification:

N/A

Dates of Action:

United Nations Environment Program, 1995

Organisms:

Alien species which "have serious effects upon marine ecosystem integrity"

Pathways:

Not specified

Relevance:

Physical Alterations and destruction of habitats - Paragraph 149: Introduction of alien species acknowledged to have serious effects upon marine ecosystem integrity.

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Agreement:

International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Resolution

Participants:

N/A

U.S. Ratification:

N/A

Dates of Action:

1998

Organisms:

Not specified

Pathways:

Not specified

Relevance:

The ICAO Assembly passed Resolution A-32-9, which urges all member states to use their civil aviation authorities to assist in reducing the risk of introducing potentially invasive species to areas outside their natural range. And requests the ICAO Council to notify other United Nations organizations of its availability to identify approaches that ICAO can take in assisting in reducing the risk of introducing potentially invasive species to areas outside their natural range

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Last Modified: Nov 26, 2013
 
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