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You are here: Home / Aquatic Species / Species Profiles / Eurasian Watermilfoil
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Eurasian Watermilfoil

Eurasian WatermilfoilScientific name: Myriophyllum spicatum L. (ITIS)

Common name: Eurasian watermilfoil

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Selected Resources

Native To: Europe, Asia, and North Africa (Eiswerth et al. 2000)

Date of U.S. Introduction: Exact date unknown; between the 1880s and the 1940s (Eiswerth et al. 2000)

Means of Introduction: Either in ballast water or through the aquarium trade (University of Connecticut 2009)

Impact: Crowds out native species (Smith and Barko 1990)

Current U.S. Distribution:



  • Eurasian water-milfoil (or select Play button below)
    University of Florida. Center for Invasive and Aquatic Plants. (YouTube).

Selected Resources:


Eurasian Water Milfoil
Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force.

Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands - Myriophyllum spicatum
California Invasive Plant Council.
Bossard, C.C., J.M. Randall, and M.C. Hoshovsky (Editors). 2000. Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA

Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council Invasive Plant Manual - Eurasian Water-milfoil
Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council.

Fact Sheet: Eurasian Watermilfoil (Jan 2014; PDF | 390 KB)
Alberta Invasive Plants Council (Canada).


Eurasian Watermilfoil
Northeast Aquatic Nuisance Species Panel

Texas Invasives Database - Myriophyllum spicatum

Invasive Species Compendium - Myriophyllum spicatum
CAB International.

Global Invasive Species Database - Myriophyllum spicatum (aquatic plant)
World Conservation Union. Invasive Species Specialist Group.


Myriophyllum spicatum L. (Eurasian Watermilfoil) - Aquatic Plant Information System (APIS)
DOD. USACE. Engineer Research and Development Center. Environmental Laboratory.

Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) - Myriophyllum spicatum
USDA. ARS. National Genetic Resources Program.

Eurasian Watermilfoil - Biological Control of Invasive Plants in the Eastern United States (Aug 2002)
Published by: USDA. Forest Service. Publication FHTET-2002-04.

PLANTS Database - Eurasian Watermilfoil
USDA. NRCS. National Plant Data Center.

Weed Profile: Eurasian water milfoil
New South Wales Department of Primary Industries (Australia)


Eurasian Watermilfoil
Colorado Department of Agriculture. Noxious Weed Management Program.

Eurasian Milfoil - Environmental Fact Sheet (2010; PDF | 374 KB)
New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services.

Eurasian Watermilfoil in Vermont and Eurasian Watermilfoil Fact Sheet (PDF | 103 KB)
Vermont Agency of Natural Resources. Environmental Conservation.

Eurasian Water-milfoil - Invasive Alien Plant Species of Virginia (PDF | 96 KB)
Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation. Natural Heritage Program; Virginia Native Plant Society.

Eurasian Watermilfoil - Non-Native Freshwater Plants
Washington State Department of Ecology. Water Quality Program.

Class B Noxious Weed: Eurasian Watermilfoil
Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board.

Eurasian Water Milfoil
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.


Myriophyllum spicatum - Invasive Plant Species of Alaska (PDF | 92 KB)
University of Alaska - Anchorage. Alaska Natural Heritage Program.

Myriophyllum spicatum (Eurasian watermilfoil, spiked watermilfoil) - Invasive Plant Atlas of New England (IPANE)
University of Connecticut. Ecology and Evolutionary Biology.

Eurasian water milfoil
University of Florida. Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants.

Eurasian water milfoil - Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States
University of Georgia. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health.

Aquatic Invaders: Eurasian Watermilfoil - Aquatic Invader Toolkit (PDF | 761 KB)
Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant.

Eurasian Milfoil - Maine Invasive Plants Bulletin no. 2531
University of Maine. Cooperative Extension.

Invasive Plant Atlas of the MidSouth - Eurasian Watermilfoil
Mississippi State University. GeoResources Institute.

Eurasian Watermilfoil (PDF | 270 KB)
University of Nevada - Reno. Cooperative Extension.

Eurasian Water-milfoil (PDF | 138 KB)
University of Pennsylvania. Morris Arboretum.

Eurasian watermilfoil - Aquaplant
Texas A&M University. Texas Agricultural Extension Service.


Eurasian Watermilfoil
Colorado Weed Management Association.

Eurasian Water Milfoil
Montana Weed Control Association.

Eurasian Watermilfoil
Plant Conservation Alliance. Alien Plant Working Group.

Eurasian watermilfoil - Practical Guidebook to the Control of Invasive and Aquatic Wetland Plants of the San Francisco Bay-Delta Region
San Francisco Estuary Institute.

Eurasian Watermilfoil
Ontario Federation of Anglers and Hunters (Canada).


Eiswerth, M.E., S.G. Donaldson, and W.S. Johnson. 2000. Potential environmental impacts and economic damages of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) in western Nevada and northeastern California. Weed Technology 14(3):511-518.

Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Myriophyllum spicatum. [Accessed Sep 10, 2014].

Smith CG, Barko JW. 1990. Ecology of Eurasian watermilfoil (PDF | 1.1 MB). Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 28:55-64

University of Connecticut. 2009. Invasive Plant Atlas of New England. Eurasian watermilfoil.

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Last Modified: Feb 24, 2015
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