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You are here: Home / Aquatic Species / Species Profiles / Eurasian Watermilfoil
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Eurasian Watermilfoil

Eurasian WatermilfoilScientific name: Myriophyllum spicatum L. (ITIS)

Common name: Eurasian watermilfoil

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Selected Resources

Native To: Europe, Asia, and North Africa (Eiswerth et al. 2000)

Date of U.S. Introduction: Exact date unknown; between the 1880s and the 1940s (Eiswerth et al. 2000)

Means of Introduction: Unknown, possibly through the aquarium trade or transport of watercraft (Nichols and Shaw 1986)

Impact: Crowds out native species (Smith and Barko 1990)

Current U.S. Distribution:



  • Eurasian water-milfoil (or select Play button below)
    University of Florida. Center for Invasive and Aquatic Plants. (YouTube).

Selected Resources:


Eurasian Water Milfoil
Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force.

Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands - Myriophyllum spicatum
California Invasive Plant Council.
Bossard, C.C., J.M. Randall, and M.C. Hoshovsky (Editors). 2000. Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA.

Invasive Plants of Ohio: Fact Sheet 12 - Eurasian Water-milfoil (PDF | 368 KB)
Ohio Invasive Plants Council.
Included as one of the worst invasive plant species in Ohio's natural areas; for others see Invasive Plants of Ohio.

Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council Invasive Plant Manual - Eurasian Water-milfoil
Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council.

Fact Sheet: Eurasian Watermilfoil (Jan 2014; PDF | 390 KB)
Alberta Invasive Plants Council (Canada).


Invasive Plant Atlas of New England (IPANE) - Eurasian watermilfoil, spiked watermilfoil
University of Georgia. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health.

Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States - Eurasian Water-milfoil
University of Georgia. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health.

Eurasian Watermilfoil
Northeast Aquatic Nuisance Species Panel

Texas Invasives Database - Myriophyllum spicatum

Invasive Species Compendium - Myriophyllum spicatum
CAB International.

Global Invasive Species Database - Myriophyllum spicatum (aquatic plant)
World Conservation Union. Invasive Species Specialist Group.


Myriophyllum spicatum L. (Eurasian Watermilfoil) - Aquatic Plant Information System (APIS)
DOD. USACE. Engineer Research and Development Center. Environmental Laboratory.

Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) - Myriophyllum spicatum
USDA. ARS. National Genetic Resources Program.

Eurasian Watermilfoil - Biological Control of Invasive Plants in the Eastern United States (Aug 2002)
Published by: USDA. Forest Service. Publication FHTET-2002-04.

PLANTS Database - Eurasian Watermilfoil
USDA. NRCS. National Plant Data Center.

Weed Profile: Eurasian water milfoil
New South Wales Department of Primary Industries (Australia)


Eurasian Watermilfoil
Colorado Department of Agriculture. Noxious Weed Management Program.

Eurasian Milfoil - Environmental Fact Sheet (2010; PDF | 374 KB)
New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services.

Invasive Plants in Pennsylvania: Eurasian Water-milfoil (PDF | 105 KB)
Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources.

Eurasian Watermilfoil in Vermont and Eurasian Watermilfoil Fact Sheet (PDF | 103 KB)
Vermont Agency of Natural Resources. Environmental Conservation.

Eurasian Watermilfoil - Non-Native Freshwater Plants
Washington State Department of Ecology. Water Quality Program.

Class B Noxious Weed: Eurasian Watermilfoil
Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board.

Eurasian Water Milfoil
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.


Myriophyllum spicatum - Invasive Plant Species of Alaska (PDF | 92 KB)
University of Alaska - Anchorage. Alaska Natural Heritage Program.

Eurasian water milfoil
University of Florida. Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants.

Aquatic Invaders: Eurasian Watermilfoil - Aquatic Invader Toolkit (PDF | 761 KB)
Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant.

Eurasian Milfoil - Maine Invasive Plants Bulletin no. 2531
University of Maine. Cooperative Extension.

Invasive Plant Atlas of the MidSouth - Eurasian Watermilfoil
Mississippi State University. GeoResources Institute.

Eurasian Water-milfoil (PDF | 138 KB)
University of Pennsylvania. Morris Arboretum.

Eurasian watermilfoil - Aquaplant
Texas A&M University. Texas Agricultural Extension Service.


Eurasian Watermilfoil
Colorado Weed Management Association.

Weed Identification - Eurasian Water Milfoil
Montana Weed Control Association.

Eurasian Watermilfoil
Plant Conservation Alliance. Alien Plant Working Group.

Eurasian Watermilfoil
Ontario Federation of Anglers and Hunters (Canada).


Eiswerth, M.E., S.G. Donaldson, and W.S. Johnson. 2000. Potential environmental impacts and economic damages of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) in western Nevada and northeastern California. Weed Technology 14(3):511-518.

Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Myriophyllum spicatum. [Accessed Sep 10, 2014].

Nichols, S.A., and B.H. Shaw. 1986. Ecological life histories of the three aquatic nuisance plants, Myriophyllum spicatum, Potamogeton crispus and Elodea canadensis. Hydrobiologia 131(1):3-21.

Smith CG, Barko JW. 1990. Ecology of Eurasian watermilfoil (PDF | 1.1 MB). Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 28:55-64

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Last Modified: Oct 01, 2015
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