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You are here: Home / Aquatic Species / Species Profiles / Eurasian Watermilfoil
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Species Profiles

Eurasian Watermilfoil

Eurasian WatermilfoilScientific name: Myriophyllum spicatum L. (ITIS)

Common name: Eurasian watermilfoil

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Selected Resources

Native To: Europe, Asia, and North Africa (Eiswerth et al. 2000)

Date of U.S. Introduction: Exact date unknown; between the 1880s and the 1940s (Eiswerth et al. 2000)

Means of Introduction: Unknown, possibly through the aquarium trade or transport of watercraft (Nichols and Shaw 1986)

Impact: Crowds out native species (Smith and Barko 1990)

Current U.S. Distribution:

Images:

Video:

Selected Resources:

Council or Task Force

Eurasian Water Milfoil
Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force.

Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands - Myriophyllum spicatum
California Invasive Plant Council.
Bossard, C.C., J.M. Randall, and M.C. Hoshovsky (Editors). 2000. Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA.

Invasive Plants of Ohio: Fact Sheet 12 - Eurasian Water-milfoil (PDF | 368 KB)
Ohio Invasive Plants Council.
Included as one of the worst invasive plant species in Ohio's natural areas; for others see Invasive Plants of Ohio.

Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council Invasive Plant Manual - Eurasian Water-milfoil
Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council.

Fact Sheet: Eurasian Watermilfoil (Jan 2014; PDF | 390 KB)
Alberta Invasive Plants Council (Canada).

Partnership

Alaska Exotic Plants Information Clearinghouse (AKEPIC): Species Biography - Eurasian Watermilfoil (Feb 8, 2011; PDF | 92 KB)
University of Alaska - Anchorage. Alaska Center for Conservation Science.

See also: Non-Native Plant Species List for additional factsheets (species biographies) and species risk assessment reports of non-native species present in Alaska and also non-native species currently not recorded in Alaska (potential invasives).

Invasive Plant Atlas of New England (IPANE) - Eurasian watermilfoil, spiked watermilfoil
University of Georgia. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health.

Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States - Eurasian Water-milfoil
University of Georgia. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health.

Eurasian Watermilfoil
Northeast Aquatic Nuisance Species Panel
.

Texas Invasives Database - Myriophyllum spicatum
TexasInvasives.org.

Invasive Species Compendium - Myriophyllum spicatum
CAB International.

Global Invasive Species Database - Myriophyllum spicatum (aquatic plant)
IUCN. Species Survival Commission. Invasive Species Specialist Group.

Federal Government

Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database: Fact Sheet - Eurasian Watermilfoil
DOI. USGS. Wetland and Aquatic Research Center.
Provides distribution maps and collection information (State and County).

Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) - Myriophyllum spicatum
USDA. ARS. National Genetic Resources Program.

PLANTS Database - Eurasian Watermilfoil
USDA. NRCS. National Plant Data Center.

International Government

Weeds in Australia - Eurasian Water Milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum)
Australian Government. Department of the Environment.

Weed Profile: Eurasian water milfoil
New South Wales Department of Primary Industries (Australia)

State Government

Noxious Weed Species - Eurasian Watermilfoil
Colorado Department of Agriculture. Conservation Services Division. Noxious Weed Program.

Eurasian Milfoil - Environmental Fact Sheet (2010; PDF | 374 KB)
New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services.

Invasive Plants in Pennsylvania: Eurasian Water-milfoil (PDF | 105 KB)
Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources.

Aquatic Invasive Species in Vermont - Eurasian Watermilfoil
Vermont Agency of Natural Resources. Environmental Conservation. Watershed Management Division.

Eurasian Watermilfoil - Non-Native Freshwater Plants
Washington State Department of Ecology. Water Quality Program.

Class B Noxious Weed: Eurasian Watermilfoil
Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board.

Eurasian Water Milfoil
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

Academic

Plant Profile: Myriophyllum spicatum
University of Florida. IFAS. Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants.

Aquatic Invader Toolkit - Eurasian Watermilfoil (PDF | 761 KB)
Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant.

Maine Invasive Plants Bulletin: Eurasian Milfoil
University of Maine. Cooperative Extension.
See also: Maine Invasive Plants & Entire Series for entire series of 22 fact sheets and invasive plants brochure (available in HTML/PDF or for purchase)

Invasive Plant Atlas of the MidSouth - Eurasian Watermilfoil
Mississippi State University. GeoResources Institute.

Aquatic Plants and Algae: Eurasian Water Milfoil
Pennsylvania State University. Cooperative Extension.

Eurasian Water-milfoil (PDF | 138 KB)
University of Pennsylvania. Morris Arboretum.

Fact Sheet: Eurasian Watermilfoil (PDF | 259 KB)
Pennsylvania State University. Pennsylvania Sea Grant.

AQUAPLANT - Eurasian Watermilfoil
Texas A&M University. AgriLife Extension Service. Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences.

Invasive Species Fact Sheets - Eurasian Watermilfoil
University of Wisconsin Sea Grant Institute.

Professional

Noxious Weed Information - Eurasian Watermilfoil (B List)
Colorado Weed Management Association.

The Quiet Invasion: A Guide to Invasive Species of the Galveston Bay Area - Eurasian Watermilfoil
Galveston Bay Estuary Program (Texas).

Maine's Interactive Field Guide to Aquatic Invaders and Their Native Look Alikes - Eurasian Water-Milfoil
Maine Volunteer Lake Monitoring Program.

Weed Identification - Eurasian Water Milfoil
Montana Weed Control Association.

Eurasian Watermilfoil
Plant Conservation Alliance. Alien Plant Working Group.

Eurasian Watermilfoil
Ontario Federation of Anglers and Hunters (Canada).

Citations

Eiswerth, M.E., S.G. Donaldson, and W.S. Johnson. 2000. Potential environmental impacts and economic damages of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) in western Nevada and northeastern California. Weed Technology 14(3):511-518.

Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Myriophyllum spicatum. [Accessed Sep 10, 2014].

Nichols, S.A., and B.H. Shaw. 1986. Ecological life histories of the three aquatic nuisance plants, Myriophyllum spicatum, Potamogeton crispus and Elodea canadensis. Hydrobiologia 131(1):3-21.

Smith C.G., and J.W. Barko. 1990. Ecology of Eurasian watermilfoil (PDF | 1.1 MB). Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 28:55-64.

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Last Modified: Jun 16, 2016
 
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