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You are here: Home / Aquatic Species / Species Profiles / Eurasian Watermilfoil
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Species Profiles

Eurasian Watermilfoil

Eurasian WatermilfoilScientific name: Myriophyllum spicatum L.

Common name: Eurasian watermilfoil

Click image to enlarge

Native To: Europe, Asia, and North Africa (Eiswerth et al. 2000)

Date of U.S. Introduction: Exact date unknown; between the 1880s and the 1940s (Eiswerth et al. 2000)

Means of Introduction: Either in ballast water or through the aquarium trade (University of Connecticut 2009)

Impact: Crowds out native species (Smith and Barko 1990)

Current U.S. Distribution:

Images:

Video:

  • Eurasian water-milfoil (or select Play button below)
    University of Florida. Center for Invasive and Aquatic Plants. (YouTube).

Selected Internet Resources:

Federal Government

Myriophyllum spicatum
Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
Taxonomy

Eurasian Watermilfoil - Plant Invaders of Mid-Atlantic Natural Areas (2002)
DOI. National Park Service and Fish and Wildlife Service.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Distribution; Introduction History; Impacts; Controls

Whole-Lake Applications of Sonar for Selective Control of Eurasian Watermilfoil, Feb 2001, ERDC/EL TR-01-7 (PDF | 895 KB)
DOD. USACE. Engineer Research and Development Center. Environmental Laboratory.
Controls; Research

Myriophyllum spicatum L. (Eurasian Watermilfoil) - Aquatic Plant Information System (APIS)
DOD. USACE. Engineer Research and Development Center. Environmental Laboratory.
Identification/Description; Introduction History; Impacts; Habitat; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls

Predicting the Invasion of Eurasian Watermilfoil into Northern Lakes, Technical Report A-99-2, Feb 1999 (PDF | 458 KB)
DOD. USACE. Waterways Experiment Station.
Controls; Research

Foiling Watermilfoil (Mar 1999)
USDA. Agricultural Research Service.
Controls; Research

Eurasian Water Milfoil
USDA. APHIS. Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey. National Agricultural Pest Information System.
Photographs; Distribution; Special Note: Links to other sites

Myriophyllum spicatum Article Citation Search - AGRICOLA Database
USDA. National Agricultural Library.
Research; Special Note: NAL Catalog Search (resources)

Myriophyllum spicatum - Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)
USDA. ARS. National Genetic Resources Program.
Taxonomy; Legal Aspects

Eurasian Watermilfoil - Biological Control of Invasive Plants in the Eastern United States (Aug 2002)
BugwoodWiki.
Published by: USDA. Forest Service. Publication FHTET-2002-04.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Photographs; Distribution; Introduction History; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Controls

PLANTS Database - Eurasian Watermilfoil
USDA. NRCS. National Plant Data Center.
Taxonomy; Illustrations; Distribution; Legal Aspects

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State Government

Euraisian Watermilfoil
Colorado Department of Agriculture. Noxious Weed Management Program.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Distribution; Controls

Eurasian Watermilfoil Control Program
Idaho Department of Agriculture.
Controls

Eurasian Watermilfoil Fact Sheet (PDF | 67 KB)
Iowa Department of Natural Resources.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Illustrations; Introduction History; Impacts, Distribution

Eurasian Watermilfoil Management Program
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. Ecological Services Division.
Controls

Eurasian Milfoil - Environmental Fact Sheet (2007; PDF | 82 KB)
New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services.
Identification/Description; Illustrations; Introduction History; Habitat; Distribution

Eurasian Water-milfoil - Invasive Plants of Ohio
Ohio Department of Natural Resources. Natural Areas and Preserves.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Habitat; Distribution; Controls

Eurasian Watermilfoil in Vermont and Eurasian Watermilfoil Fact Sheet (PDF | 103 KB)
Vermont Agency of Natural Resources. Environmental Conservation.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Illustrations; Introduction History; Impacts; Distribution; Controls

Eurasian Water-milfoil - Invasive Alien Plant Species of Virginia (PDF | 96 KB)
Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation. Natural Heritage Program; Virginia Native Plant Society.
Identification/Description; Illustrations; Introduction History; Impacts; Habitat; Distribution; Controls

Eurasian watermilfoil
State of Washington. King County Department of Natural Resources. Water and Land Resources Division.
Identification/Description; Illustrations; Introduction History; Dispersion; Controls

Eurasian Watermilfoil - Non-Native Freshwater Plants
Washington State Department of Ecology. Water Quality Program.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Illustrations; Introduction History; Impacts; Habitat; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls; Special Note: References

Class B Noxious Weed: Eurasian Watermilfoil
Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Photographs; Impacts; Habitat; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls; Legal Aspects

Eurasian Water Milfoil
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.
Identification/Distribution; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Habitat; Distribution; Control

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University/Academic

Myriophyllum spicatum - Invasive Plant Species of Alaska (PDF | 92 KB)
University of Alaska - Anchorage. Alaska Natural Heritage Program.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Impacts; Habitat; Controls

Myriophyllum spicatum (Eurasian watermilfoil, spiked watermilfoil) - Invasive Plant Atlas of New England (IPANE)
University of Connecticut. Ecology and Evolutionary Biology.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls

Eurasian water milfoil - Aquatic, Wetland and Invasive Plant Particulars and Photographs
University of Florida. Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Illustrations; Controls

Eurasian water milfoil - Biological Control Of Invasive Plants
University of Florida. Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants.
Controls

Eurasian water milfoil - Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States
University of Georgia. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Distribution

Aquatic Invaders: Eurasian Watermilfoil - Aquatic Invader Toolkit (PDF | 761 KB)
Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant.
Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls

Eurasian Milfoil - Maine Invasive Plants Bulletin no. 2531
University of Maine. Cooperative Extension.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Impacts; Habitat; Distribution; Controls

Biological Control of Eurasian Watermilfoil
University of Minnesota. Fisheries and Wildlife.
Photographs; Controls

Eurasian Watermilfoil - Invasive Plant Atlas of the MidSouth
Mississippi State University. GeoResources Institute.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Habitat; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls; Legal Aspects

Eurasian Watermilfoil (PDF | 270 KB)
University of Nevada - Reno. Cooperative Extension.
Identification/Description; Introduction History; Illustrations; Impacts; Habitat; Distribution; Controls

Eurasian Water-milfoil (PDF | 138KB)
University of Pennsylvania. Morris Arboretum.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Illustrations; Introduction History; Impacts; Habitat; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls

Eurasian watermilfoil - Aquaplant
Texas A&M University. Texas Agricultural Extension Service.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Illustrations; Introduction History; Controls

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International

Eurasian Watermilfoil
Ontario Federation of Anglers and Hunters (Canada).
Identification/Description; Photographs; Impacts; Distribution

Weed Profile: Eurasian water milfoil
New South Wales Department of Primary Industries (Australia).
Identification/Description; Photographs; Impacts; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls; Legal Aspects

Myriophyllum spicatum (aquatic plant) - ISSG Global Invasive Species Database
World Conservation Union. Invasive Species Specialist Group.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Controls

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Organizations

Myriophyllum spicatum - Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands Book (2000)
California Invasive Plant Council.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Illustrations; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls

Eurasian Watermilfoil
Colorado Weed Management Association.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Dispersion

Myriophyllum spicatum
Discover Life.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Photographs; Illustrations; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls

Eurasian Water Milfoil
Montana Weed Control Association.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls

Eurasian Watermilfoil
Plant Conservation Alliance. Alien Plant Working Group.
Identification; Photographs; Impacts; Habitat; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls

Myriophyllum spicatum
Texasinvasives.org.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls; Special Note: References

Eurasian watermilfoil - Practical Guidebook to the Control of Invasive and Aquatic Wetland Plants of the San Francisco Bay-Delta Region
San Francisco Estuary Institute.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Impacts, Habitat; Controls

Eurasian Water-milfoil - Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council Invasive Plant Manual
Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council.
Identification/Description; Introduction History; Impacts; Life Cycle, Habitat; Distribution; Controls; Special Note: References

Citations

Eiswerth, M.E., S.G. Donaldson, and W.S. Johnson. 2000. Potential environmental impacts and economic damages of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) in western Nevada and northeastern California. Weed Technology 14(3):511-518.

Smith CG, Barko JW. 1990. Ecology of Eurasian watermilfoil (PDF | 1.1 MB). Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 28:55-64

University of Connecticut. 2009. Invasive Plant Atlas of New England. Eurasian watermilfoil.

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Last Modified: Jul 01, 2014
 
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